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2. How does preparing a disaster scenario help in the recovery process?
3. What is a standby server?
4. How do you rebuild the Registry for SQL Server 2000?
5. How do you rebuild the Master database in SQL Server 2000?
6. What are the two Authentication modes for SQL Server 2000?
7. What are the two groups of roles in SQL Server 2000?
8. What is a fixed role?
9. To which groups does an application role belong?
10. What makes a SQL Server view suitable for security purposes?
11. What are the most commonly used connection interfaces for
SQL Server 2000?
12. How do you configure an ODBC data source?
13. What are ADO, RDO, and DAO in the context of SQL Server 2000?
14. What Microsoft application is required to provide access to SQL Server via
15. How do you install the English Query? What would you use it for?
16. What data sources can you search once you’ve installed the full-text
17. Where is a full-text index physically stored?
18. What is the primary use of SQL Server Analytical Services?
19. How can you automatically update a Web page created with the Web
Publishing Wizard for SQL Server 2000?
20. What is XML and how does SQL Server 2000 support it?
1. Every SQL Server RDBMS system consists of at least three components: an
operating system, SQL Server, and the client applications that connect to
2. It enables you to identify potential problems and practice steps for recov-ery
in order to minimize downtime and data loss.
3. A standby server is an identical copy of a production SQL Server that is
usually installed on a different machine. It mirrors the production server
very closely so you can use it as a substitute production server in case of
a server disaster.
4. By running the SQL Server installation program again and choosing
5. Using the command-line utility Rebuildm.exe.
6. Windows Authentication and Mixed Authentication modes.
7. Server roles, which are applied and administered at the SQL Server level,
and database roles, which are applied and administered at the database
8. A predefined role in SQL Server that cannot be changed. There are eight
fixed server roles.
9. It is a database role.
10. Normally, a SQL Server view does not allow updates and inserts into
underlying tables; you can limit a view to several columns in the table
while hiding the rest.
11. OLE DB and ODBC.
12. Through the ODBC component in the Control Panel (Windows NT) or Data
Sources from the Administrative Tools menu.
13. ADO, RDO, and DAO are ActiveX components for accessing data sources
through ODBC or OLEDB provider interfaces.
14. Microsoft Internet Information Server.
15. By choosing English Query during the SQL Server 2000 installation
process. This helps to create custom solutions that enable you to query
SQL Server in plain English rather than with Transact-SQL.
16. Any data in SQL Server database as well as any text contained in system
17. It is stored as a system file, separate from SQL Server.
18. Analyzing large amount of data in a process called data mining in order
to discover hidden trends.
19. Using the SQL Server Web Publishing Wizard you may specify that the
data in the published set be updated periodically or upon changes to the
data in a particular column(s).
20. XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. It is an emerging standard
for data-interchange formats for the distributed systems. SQL Server 2000
supports XML by providing special keywords, FOR XML and OPENXML.
2. Why it is usually a good idea to maintain a script of your database?
3. How do you detach and attach a database?
4. What databases cannot be attached or detached?
5. What is the difference between a linked server and a remote server?
6. What data sources besides SQL Server can you link to SQL Server 2000?
7. How do you start a distributed transaction in SQL Server 2000?
8. What is the two-phase commit procedure?
9. What are the two main legitimate ways to gain access to SQL Server 2000
10. What is an INFORMATION_SCHEMA?
11. How do you execute a system stored procedure?
12. What are catalog system stored procedures?
13. What is an extended stored procedure in SQL Server 2000?
14. What is the purpose of SQL Server Agent?
15. Where does SQL Server Agent store and pick up information about tasks
scheduled for the system?
16. What is an Operator in SQL Server? ?
17. What is event forwarding?
18. What is one example of a MAPI-compliant server? 19. What is the difference between SQL Server Mail and SQL Server Mail
20. What is the security context of SQL Server Mail Agent?
21. How do you send ad hoc e-mail messages?
22. What is the SQL Server Profiler and what can you do with it?
23. How do you view an estimated execution plan for a query?
24. How do you create statistics for a table? Who uses statistics?
25. What would you use as input data for the Index Tuning Wizard?
26. How can you optimize transaction-log performance?
27. What is DBCC?
1. A Database Maintenance Plan is a job scheduled under SQL Server Agent.
It consists of one or more steps such as backup, reclaiming unused space,
updating statistics, checking database integrity, and so on.
2. To document the database structure and possibly restore it in case of a
3. By using the appropriate options from the right-click menu of the
Databases node or by using the system stored procedures sp_attach_db
4. System databases cannot be attached, detached, or copied.
5. Remote servers allow a client application connected to one SQL Server to
run a stored procedure on another without having to connect to it explic-itly.
Linked servers extend this functionality to heterogeneous data
sources, and also support Distributed transactions.
6. Any data source that has an OLE DB provider or ODBC driver for it.
7. Explicitly, by using the BEGIN DISTRIBUTED TRANSACTION keyword, or
implicitly, by using a distributed query or calling a remote stored proce-dure
within the local transaction.
8. The way to ensure the integrity of a distributed transaction process
across multiple servers.
9. By using the system catalog stored procedures or the
10. An INFORMATION_SCHEMA is a view created for each user database that
provides access to the metadata for the database objects.
11. System stored procedures have global scope. To execute a system stored
procedure on a local server you do not need to specify the fully qualified
path or be in the context of any particular database.
12. System stored procedures that provide information about SQL Server
13. A compiled dynamic link library that SQL Server can call to perform tasks
that are difficult or impossible to implement in Transact-SQL.
14. To define, schedule for execution, and execute various database tasks.
15. MSDB contains all the information about scheduled tasks.
16. An operator is a contact to which an alert will send notification via
e-mail or pager.
17. Configuring SQL Server to send events to a central server in a multi-server
environment to be processed there.
18. Most of the mail servers are MAPI compliant. The samples would be:
Microsoft Exchange, Sun Internet Mail Server, Mdaemon Mail Server and
dozens more. 19. You use SQL Server Mail to execute stored procedures remotely and return
results by e-mail; you use SQL Server Agent Mail to send e-mail and pager
20. SQL Server Mail runs in the security context of MSSQLService.
21. Using extended stored procedures.
22. SQL Server Profiler is a graphical tool you can use to trace the perfor-mance
of SQL Server in your server and to help analyze the results to find
potential bottlenecks and problems.
23. From the Query Analyzer toolbar menu Query, select Display Estimated
24. Statistics information is created automatically whenever an index is cre-ated
for a table, but you can also create statistics using the CREATE STA-TISTICS
statement. Statistics are used by SQL Server Query Optimizer to
determine the best path of execution for a particular query.
25. Workload data created with SQL Server Profiler.
26. By setting a large initial size and big increments, so resources are not
wasted when you expand the log.
27. DBCC is a set of SQL Server commands for performing consistency checks
and various database-management tasks pertaining to the integrity of the
2. What data sources can DTS connect to?
3. How do you transform data during the export/import procedure?
4. What tool can you use you use to design and modify DTS packages?
5. What is BCP?
6. What are the differences between BCP and the data transformation
7. What databases do you need to back up? Why?
8. What media can you back up to?
9. What is a backup device?
10. What are the two ways of creating a backup of a SQL Server database?
11. What is the purpose of a database transaction log?
12. What might cause a database transaction log to fill up?
13. How does full backup differ from differential backup?
14. Is it possible to create a differential backup for a transaction log?
15. What are the steps for restoring a database from a normal backup?
16. How does backup and restoration of the Master database differ from any
other backup and restore operation?
17. What is the main purpose of a replication? What are the three types of servers (components) in the replication
model and what are their purposes?
19. What are the two types of subscription?
20. Name the replication agents.
1. DTS imports and exports data from a SQL Server database.
2. Any data source for which there is a valid OLE DB provider.
3. Either by attaching a VBScript module or T-SQL conversions to the DTS
4. DTS Export/Import wizards.
5. BCP is the Bulk Copy command-line utility program; it uses the DB
Library interface to import and export large amounts of data into or out
of SQL Server.
6. BCP has only limited support for transferring data between heteroge-neous
data sources, virtually no support for data transformation, and no
visual interface for administration.
7. The system databases, especially the Master database, must be backed up
periodically, and before and after any major change to server properties,
so that you will be able to recover from a disaster. User databases should
be backed up periodically to minimize potential data loss.
8. Tape backup devices, files, and logical backup devices.
9. A backup device is a structured storage file. You can organize it in such a
way that it becomes storage for logical devices.
10. With the Database Backup Wizard or with Transact-SQL statements.
11. It is a sequential record of all transactions since the last differential or
database backup. You can use it to recover a database up to the point of
12. Unfinished transactions.
13. A differential backup backs up all data that have changed since the last
complete backup. It is much faster than a complete backup but can only
be used in conjunction with a full backup, and is not allowed on the
14. No, transaction log can be backed up only all at once. Transaction log
keeps track of the changes made to the database and is used to deter-mine
what part is supposed to be backed up during a differential backup
of the database.
15. First restore the last full backup; then apply all transaction-log backups,
starting from the oldest.
16. You can only perform a full backup of the Master database, not a differ-ential
or transaction-log backup; when restoring the Master database you
should use only the Recovery Complete option.
17. Distribution of identical data across several data sources.
18. Publisher —A source server for the distributed data. It maintains all the
information about the data specified for publishing.
Distributor —An intermediary between the Publisher and the Subscriber,
which can also be both Publisher and Subscriber. Its role varies depending
on the type of replication you select.
Subscriber —The final destination of the distributed data.
19. PUSH subscriptions and PULL subscriptions.
20. Replication agents are utilities that assist in the replication process.
2. Where is a stored procedure stored?
3. What is the scope of the stored procedure?
4. What is the scope of the @@ERROR system function?
5. What is a nested stored procedure?
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using stored procedures?
7. How is a trigger different from a stored procedure? From a T-SQL batch?
8. What events can a trigger respond to?
9. What are the two virtual tables SQL Server maintains for triggers?
10. What does the INSTEAD OF trigger do?
11. What is a SQL Server cursor?
12. What are the four different cursor types?
13. What is concurrency and how does it apply to cursors?
14. What is an index in the context of SQL Server?
15. What is the difference between a clustered and a non-clustered index?
16. How many clustered indices can you define for one table? Non-clustered?
17. Would it be a good idea to create an index on a table that always con-tains
10 records? Why or why not?
18. What columns would you use for a non-clustered index?
19. What are the four types of integrity?
20. What types of integrity are enforced by a foreign-key constraint?
21. When can you add the CHECK constraint to a table?
22. In order for a RULE to be functional what do you need to do after it is
23. What is a NULL in SQL Server? How does it differ from zero?
24. What is a transaction?
25. What do the letters in the acronym ACID stand for?
26. What are explicit and implicit transactions?
27. What are the two types of concurrency?
28. What are the four isolation levels?
29. What is locking escalation? When does it occur?
30. What is a deadlock? How do you avoid deadlocks?
1. A stored procedure is a database object compiled and stored under a
unique name and is stored in SQL Server; it can have input and output
parameters as well as a return value. A T-SQL batch is stored as a file and
must be executed through one of the SQL Server interfaces; it does not
have input or output parameters and it is always interpreted.
2. It is stored in the Stored Procedures collection of a particular database on
SQL Server. Stored procedures global in their scope reside in the Master
3. The scope of the stored procedure is usually within the database in which
it is created; stored procedures prefixed with sp_ and stored in the
Master database are global for the SQL Server instance.
4. It always has a global scope.
5. Calling a stored procedure from within another stored procedure makes it
a nested stored procedure.
6. Stored procedures usually execute faster than T-SQL batches and consume
fewer resources; they are maintained by SQL Server; they enable you
to create reusable libraries; also they give you benefits of structured
However, they shift control to SQL Server from the client application and
are usually more difficult to modify than batches.
7. Unlike a stored procedure, a trigger is tied to a specific table and is exe-cuted
only in response to certain actions performed on this table; you
cannot call a trigger directly; and a trigger is compiled.
8. Any events that modify data: A trigger can be set to respond to an
INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE event.
9. DELETED and INSERTED.
10. An INSTEAD OF trigger is executed instead of the T-SQL statement that
triggered the action.
11. A programming object (structure) established on the result-set base. It
enables you to manipulate records in the set row by row.
12. Static, dynamic, forward-only, and keyset-driven.
13. Concurrency refers to the visibility of the data set, which may be accessi-ble
by several users at the same time; you set the cursor’s concurrency in
the cursor declaration or client application.
14. An index speeds up search operations by creating a system of pointers to
the actual data. It is maintained separately from the table it indexes.
15. A clustered index physically re-organizes data in the table; a non-clustered
index just maintains pointers to the actual locations of the records.
16. You can define only one clustered index and up to 249 non-clustered
17. No. For a small amount of data, a table scan is more efficient than an
18. Columns used in JOIN queries, aggregate functions, GROUP BY, or ORDER
19. Entity, domain, referential and user-defined.
20. Domain integrity (range of values) and referential integrity (preserves
relationship among tables).
21. You can define the CHECK constraint during the creation of the table, or
later with the ALTER TABLE statement.
22. You need to bind it to a column or user-defined type.
23. NULL indicates an absence of data; unless your server is set to compare
NULLs, one NULL is never equal to another. Zero is an actual value repre-sented
by a number.
24. A SQL Server transaction is a collection of T-SQL statements that either
executes as a whole or fails and leaves data unchanged.
25. Atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability.
26. Any transaction that you explicitly start (BEGIN TRANSACTION), end (END
TRANSACTION), or commit (COMMIT TRANSACTION) is an explicit transac-tion.
Implicit transactions are those that SQL Server automatically starts
when it encounters one of the following T-SQL statements:
27. Optimistic and pessimistic.
28. Read uncommitted, read committed, repeatable read, and serializable. 29. Lock escalation converts fine-grained locks into coarser-grained locks (for
example, row-level locking to table-level locking) when SQL Server figures
out that another lock will use less system resources.
30. A deadlock refers to a situation wherein a process (transaction) has
obtained a lock on a resource and tries to get a lock on a second resource
while another process tries to simultaneously obtain a lock on that same
resource and keep a lock on some third resource; neither of the processes
can get the lock on the resource, nor can they commit or abort.
To avoid deadlocks applications should access database objects in a spe-cific
order, user interaction during transactions should be eliminated,
transactions should be kept as short as possible, and you should use the
lowest isolation level possible.
2. What is referential integrity?
3. How is data integrity enforced in RDBMS?
4. What is the difference between a key and an index?
5. What databases are supplied with every SQL Server installation?
6. What is the purpose of the Master database in SQL Server?
7. Which SQL Server system database is a template database?
8. How do you resolve many-to-many relationships in RDBMS?
9. What is data normalization?
10. What is the purpose of the first normal form?
11. What components must you define for every database created in SQL
12. How do you create a database with T-SQL?
13. What is the T-SQL syntax for deleting a database?
14. Which databases cannot be deleted from SQL Server?
15. How are SQL Server databases physically stored under Windows 2000?
16. What is the internal language of SQL Server 2000?
17. How do you execute T-SQL statements?
18. What is a variable? How do you declare one?
19. What value could be assigned to VARCHAR datatype.
20. What are the four basic queries in SQL?
21. What are the main control-of-flow T-SQL constructs?
22. What are the different types of joins and what do they do?
1. A relational database is a collection of database objects: tables maintain-ing
relationships based on the primary/foreign key principle, various
means of manipulating these tables, and the rules that enforce the rela-tionships
and their integrity. Unlike spreadsheet tables or flat files,
RDBMS tables are related in a parent/child-like relationship.
2. Referential integrity is a relational database concept referring to a state
of data meaning that there are no “orphaned” records; each record in the
child table must be linked to an existing record in the parent table.
3. Data integrity is enforced on four levels through indices, constraints,
rules, and triggers.
4. A key is a column or combination of columns within the table; each table
can have one primary key and several foreign keys. An index is a separate
database structure created to facilitate faster data access.
5. System databases (Master, MSDB, Model, Temp) and sample databases
6. The Master database contains information about the entire SQL Server
instance: settings, startup information, a description of every database
created on the system, and system stored procedures.
7. The Model database serves as a template for every custom database cre-ated
on the system.
8. You resolve a many-to-many relationship with an intermediate table,
which usually consists of primary-key columns of the tables it relates.
9. Data normalization is a process of breaking large tables into smaller
ones to prevent redundancy and data duplication.
10. The first normal form eliminates repeating groups.
11. In order to create a database you must define the data component and
the transaction log component.
12. Execute the statement CREATE DATABASE
appropriate optional parameters.
13. DROP DATABASE
in a single statement.
14. You cannot delete any system databases.
15. A database created within SQL Server 2000 is physically maintained as
two or more system files.
16. Transact SQL (Structured Query Language).
17. You can pass Transact SQL statements to SQL Server to be executed
through a number of interfaces: Query Analyzer, ISQL command line,
OSQL, or any client application programmed to connect to the SQL
18. A variable is a data holder; declaring a variable reserves space where
eventually value would put when it assigned to the variable. You declare
a variable in Transact-SQL with the DECLARE keyword, followed by the
variable name and type. (For example, DECLARE @MyVariable VAR-CHAR(
19. Any text data (character string) up to a length specified in that variable
declaration. It cannot be a number, or date or binary.
20. SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
21. IF, IF...ELSE, WHILE, GOTO
2. On what operating systems can you install SQL Server 2000?
3. Name at least three installation versions of SQL Server 2000. What are the
differences between them?
4. What is collation order and how do you choose one?
5. What is a named instance and how does it differ from a default server?
6. What are the two authentication modes supported by SQL Server 2000?
7. What visual tool does Microsoft supply to manage SQL Server?
8. What are SQL Server services and how do you manage them?
9. How do you register a server with the SQL Server Enterprise Manager?
10. How many top-level objects do you see for each registered SQL Server?
11. Can you change your SQL Server configuration options?
12. How do you add or remove SQL Server components after installation?
13. How do you uninstall SQL Server 2000?
14. What are the SQL Server Books Online and where can you find them?
15. What is a wizard in SQL Server 2000 context?
16. What is RDBMS? What does it have to do with SQL Server?
17. What is the purpose of the BCP command-line utility?
18. What are ISQL and OSQL?
19. What are SQL Server Agent jobs and alerts?
20. What is the Web Assistant Wizard?.
1. SQL Server 2000 is a relational database management system (RDBMS)
2. You can install SQL Server 2000 on Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Server,
Windows 98 and Windows CE.
3. Enterprise, Standard, Professional, Developer Edition and Windows CE
The differences between these versions lie in the maximum size of the
supported database, the number of CPUs, and support for enterprise-level
features such as replication, scheduling, and so forth.
4. Collation order refers to the way the data in a database are sorted and
compared. Collation order for the server is set during installation; you
can change it later, though it requires reinstalling the SQL Server.
Collation order for a custom database can be set during creation of
the database - it could be different from the default collation order of the
5. Starting from SQL Server version 7.0 you can run several instances of SQL
Server on the same machine. The first installed instance is designated the
default and given the name of the machine on which it is installed; every
named instance must have a unique name.
6. Windows authentication mode and mixed mode.
7. The SQL Server Enterprise Server Manager.
8. Services are a specific type of Windows programs that run as background
process and usually do not require(or allow) direct user interaction. SQL
Server depends on the following services to run: SQL Server Service,
SQL Server Agent Service and MSDTC Service; you manage services
through the SQL Server Service Manager or from Control Panel’s Services
9. Through the Register SQL Server Wizard in the Enterprise Manager
10. Depending on the installation version, you will have anywhere from five
to seven top-level objects with each registered server.
11. Yes. Doing so usually requires re-running install and selecting different
options; sometimes it might be necessary to reinstall SQL Server altogether.
12. By re-running installation and selecting the components you wish to add.
13. Rerun the installation program and select the uninstall option, or use the
Add/Remove Programs utility in the Control Panel.
14. They are the most comprehensive source of information on SQL Server,
and they are installed with every version of SQL Server.
15. A program that guides you step by step through the process of complet-ing
a specific task.
16. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a means of storing
and managing data in a system of related entities/tables; SQL Server is
one of many implementations of the RDBMS concept.
17. It assists in speedily transferring large amount of data into or out of a
18. Both are command-line utilities for performing ad-hoc SQL queries. ISQL
is a command-line utility based on the DB Library interface; it is provided
for compatibility with previous versions of SQL Server and does not sup-port
all SQL Server 2000 features. OSQL is ODBC-based and supports all
the features of SQL Server 2000; it can also run UNICODE stored scripts.
19. SQL Server Agent assists with automating some of your database-management
chores. A SQL Server Agent job is a sequence of database
tasks scheduled for execution, either periodically or as the result of some
predetermined condition. SQL Server alerts enable you to take action in
response to some event that occurs on the system by notifying an opera-tor
- either via e-mail or pager.
20. The Web Assistant Wizard is a tool for generating (HyperText Markup
Language (HTML) documents based on the data extracted from SQL Server
Fill out one of the fields and click Calculate...
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Windows XP comes with built-in software to burn to CDs or DVDs, but the
features are limited. So in many cases, computer owners have other software
they use to burn CDs. Most of the time, this software is either preloaded on
a computer by the manufacturer or comes with the new CD-RW or DVD-RW drive
What happens when you have reformatted your computer and don't have the
original disks to reinstall the software? Are you stuck with just using the
Windows XP built-in software? The answer is no. There are several good
packages out there to choose from. Most of these work on Windows 98, ME,
2000, and XP.
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No trespassing without permission.
Hotel bedroom, Japan : Guests are requested not to smoke or do other
disgusting behaviours in bed.
Doctor's surgery, Rome : Specialist in women and other diseases.
Cocktail lounge , Norway:
Ladies are requested not to have children in the bar.
Hotel, Acapulco :
The manager has personally passed all the water served here.
Hotel air conditioner instructions, Japan :
Cooles and heates: if you want condition of warm air in your room, please
Zoo, Hungary :
Please do not feed the animals. If you have any suitable food, give it to
the guard on duty.
Restaurant, Nairobi :
Customers who find our waitresses rude ought to see the manager.
Car rental brochure, Tokyo :
When passenger of foot heave in sight, tootle the horn. Trumpet him
melodiously at first, but if he still obstacles your passage then tootle him
Take notice: when this sign is under water, this road is impassable.
Are you an adult that cannot read? If so, we can help.
Open seven days a week, and weekends too.
Automatic hand dryer in public lavatory:
Do not activate with wet hands.
No children allowed.
Persons are prohibited from picking flowers from any but their own graves.
Restaurant menu, Switzerland :
Our wines leave you nothing to hope for.
Temple , Bangkok :
It is forbidden to enter a woman even a foreigner if dressed as a man.
Hotel bedroom, Thailand :
Please do not bring solicitors into your room.
Hotel brochure, Italy :
This hotel is renowned for its peace and solitude. In fact, crowds from all
over the world flock here to enjoy its solitude.
Hotel bedroom, Japan :
You are invited to take advantage of the chambermaid.
Hotel , Yugoslavia:
The flattening of underwear with pleasure is the job of the chambermaid.
Hotel lobby, Bucharest :
The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that
you will be unbearable.
Supermarket, Hong Kong :
For your convenience, we recommend courteous, efficient self-service.
Hotel, Moscow (opposite Russian orthodox monastery):
You are welcome to visit the cemetery where famous Russian and soviet
composers, artists, and writers are buried daily except Thursday.
From the Soviet Weekly:
There will be a Moscow exhibition of Arts by 15,000 Soviet Republic painters
and sculptors. These were executed over the past two years.
Newspaper, East Africa :
A new swimming pool is rapidly taking shape since the contractors have
thrown in the bulk of their workers.
Black Forest , Germany :
It is strictly forbidden on our Black Forest camping site that people of
different sex, for instance, men and women, live together in one tent unless
they are married with each other for this purpose.
Hotel, Zurich :
Because of the impropriety of entertaining guests of the opposite sex in the
bedroom, it is suggested that the lobby be used
Laundry, Rome :
Ladies, leave your clothes here and spend the afternoon having a good time.
Advertisement for donkey rides, Thailand :
Would you like to ride on your own ass?
Hotel bedroom, Moscow :
If this is your first visit to the user, you are welcome to it.
Tourist agency, Czechoslovakia :
Take one of our horse-driven city tours. We guarantee no miscarriages.
Dentist's advertisement, Hong Kong :
Teeth extracted by the latest Methodists.
Airline, Copenhagen :
We take your bags and send them in all directions.
And finally on gate outside our society compound:
Warning: trace passers not allowed
Originally an organization's manual switchboard (operated
by a person plugging cables into sockets) was known as a PMBX (Private
Manual Branch eXchange). These were gradually replaced by automated
electromechanical and then electronic switching systems, called PABXs
(Private Automatic Branch eXchange). As PMBXes are almost unheard of, the
terms PABX and PBX have become synonymous.
Using a PABX saves connecting all of a business's telephone sets separately
to the public telephone network (PSTN or ISDN). Such a set-up would require
every set to have its own line (usually with a monthly recurring line
charge), and "internal" calls would have to be routed out of the building to
a central switch, only to come back in again.
In addition to telephone sets, fax machines, modems and many other
communication devices can be connected to a PABX as well (although the PABX
may degrade line quality for modems). For this reason, all such devices are
generally referred to as extensions.
The PABX equipment is typically installed at a business's premises, and
connects calls between the telephones installed there. In addition, a
limited number of outside lines (called trunk lines) are usually available
for making and receiving calls external to the site (i.e. to the public
telephone network). Companies with multiple sites can connect their PABXs
together with trunk lines. PABX-like services can also be provided by
equipment located off site at a central provider, delivering services over
the public telephone network. This is known as a hosted PABX. For example,
most local phone companies offer a Centrex service in which each extension
has a trunk line connected to the telephone company's Central Office. Other
companies offer similar services.
PABXs are distinguished from smaller "key systems" by the fact that
external lines are not normally indicated or selectable at an individual
extension. From a user's point of view calls on a key system are made by
selecting a specific outgoing line and dialing the external number; calls on
a PABX are made by dialing 9 (or 0 in some systems) followed by the external
number; an outgoing trunk line is automatically selected upon which to
complete the call.
1)He bought his first share at age 11 and he now regrets that he started too late!
2)He bought a small farm at age 14 with savings from delivering newspapers.
3)He still lives in the same small 3 bedroom house in mid-town Omaha, that he bought after he got married 50 years ago. He says that he has everything he needs in that house. His house does not have a wall or a
4) He drives his own car everywhere and does not have a driver or security people around him.
5)He never travels by private jet, although he owns the world's largest private jet company.
6)His company, Berkshire Hathaway, owns 63 companies. He writes only one letter each year to the CEOs of these companies, giving them goals for the year. He never holds meetings or calls them on a regular basis.
7) He has given his CEO's only two rules. Rule number 1: do not lose any of your share holder's money. Rule number 2: Do not forget rule number 1.
8)He does not socialize with the high society crowd. His past time after he gets home is to make himself some pop corn and watch television.
9) Bill Gates, the world's richest man met him for the first time only 5 years ago. Bill Gates did not think he had anything in common with Warren Buffet. So he had scheduled his meeting only for half hour. But when Gates met him, the meeting lasted for ten hours and Bill Gates became a devotee of Warren Buffet.
10)Warren Buffet does not carry a cell phone, nor has a computer on his desk.
11)His advice to young people: Stay away from credit cards and invest in yourself.
The number of different formats available in DVD drives can be
confusing to anyone in the market for one. The list is much longer, but to
address a few of the common formats, we have DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R,
DVD+RW, DVD-RAM ,DVD+R DL and DVD±RW. Wow! This list of common formats is
long enough, no wonder it's confusing!
What's with all the Formats?!
The reason for various recordable DVD formats is that no one group
owns the technology and different groups have chosen to support one
technology over another. There is no industrial standard for manufacturers
to reference, so for the time being consumers will have a few choices.
The first thing to address is DVD itself, which stands for Digital Versatile
Disc. Some may argue that the V stands for Video, but with the capability to
store video, audio, and data files, Versatile is definitely the keyword.
Start with the Basics
A DVD-ROM drive is the only one we will address that does not
record. ROM stands for Read Only Memory, and refers to the typical drive
that can merely read DVDs, as well as CDs (all DVD drives can read CDs). The
Lite-On LTD-163-DO-R has attributes representative of your typical DVD-ROM
drive, and features a maximum DVD read speed of 16x and a maximum CD read
speed of 48x. Before getting into the different recordable formats, let's
address the basics of what the R and RW stand for, regardless of whether
there is a + or – in the middle. R stands for Recordable, which indicates
that the disk may be recorded to only once. RW stands for ReWritable, which
indicates that the disc may be recorded to more than once, and are generally
rated for 1000 rewrites under good conditions. The DVD-R/-RW format was
developed by Pioneer, and was the first format compatible with stand alone
DVD players. The group that promotes the technology calls itself the DVD
Forum, which is "an international association of hardware manufacturers,
software firms, content providers, and other users" with notable members
such as Hitachi, Samsung, and Toshiba. The DVD-R/-RW format is based on
CD-RW technology and uses a similar approach to burning discs.
The DVD+R/+RW format is a newer format, also based on CD-RW
technology, and compatible with a large percentage of stand alone DVD
players. The +R/+RW technology is not supported by the DVD Forum, and its
main backing comes from a group called the DVD+RW Alliance. The Alliance "is
a voluntary group of industry-leading personal computing manufacturers,
optical storage and electronics manufacturers" with members such as Dell,
Hewlett Packard, Sony, and Phillips Electronics.
The DVD-RAM format is based on PD-RW (Phase-Differential) drives, and
actually uses a cartridge to hold the media (just like its PD-RW
predecessor). Some DVD-RAM cartridges are double sided, making them ideal
for companies to use as system backup, hence DVD-RAM is usually found only
in commercial applications, and most end-users won't ever need to use or see
this type of drive. The DVD-RAM standard is also supported by the DVD Forum
just like the DVD-R/RW format. However, because of its use of a cartridge
(limiting it's compatibility), and the scarcity and price of the media used,
DVD-RAM is a distant third when compared to the DVD+R/+RW and DVD-R/–RW
The +R/+RW and –R/-RW formats are similar, and the main difference
DVD+R technology has is the ability to record to multiple layers (with its
new DVD+R DL format), where DVD-R can only record to one layer (not all +R
drives are capable of dual layer burning, but no -R drives are). The Plextor
PX-504U is an example of an external DVD+R/+RW drive capable of recording
single layer discs in the +R/+RW format, but also able to read discs
recorded by a DVD-R drive.
What is DVD±RW?
DVD±RW is not actually a separate format, but the designation given
to drives capable of both –R/–RW and +R/+RW operation. This type of drive is
typically called a "Dual Drive" (not to be confused with a "Double Layer"
drive) since it can write to both the +R/+RW and –R/–RW formats. The Samsung
TS-H552 is a DVD±RW drive capable of reading and writing every format
discussed so far, and then some. It takes advantage of DVD+R DL (Double
Layer) technology available with the +R format, allowing the appropriate
media to store virtually double the 4.37 GB capacity of a typical single
The other main thing to consider with DVD burners is selecting the
correct media. Media for DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and DVD+RW media may all look
the same, but they are slightly different in order to match the specific
recording formats. The price of media for either format is generally the
same, with RW media costing a good deal more than R media of either format.
Double Layer media is even more expensive, and is the only way for an owner
of DVD+R DL drive to take advantage of the tremendous capacity increase. As
the amount of Double Layer drives increase in the market, the price of the
DVD+R DL media is expected to fall with increased production of the media.
DVD Burners (as these drive are often referred to) can be picky about the
media supported, so be sure to choose your media wisely.
DVD in a Nutshell
DVD-ROM : Reads DVD discs
DVD+R : Writes to DVD+R media (will also typically write to CD-R and CD-RW
DVD+RW : Writes to DVD+RW media (will also typically write to DVD+R, CD-R
and CD-RW media)
DVD+R DL : Writes to DVD+R DL (Double Layer) media (will also typically
write to DVD+R, DVD+RW, CD-R and CD-RW media; many Double Layer drives are
ALSO dual drives – that is, able to write to BOTH +R/RW and –R/RW media)
DVD-RAM : Writes to DVD-RAM cartridges (not in wide use on consumer market –
mainly a business format; can also read PD-RW discs. Will not usually be
able to write to any other format including CD-R or CD-RW)
DVD-R : Writes to DVD-R media (will also typically write to CD-R and CD-RW
media) DVD-RW : Writes to DVD-RW media (will also typically write to DVD-R,
CD-R and CD-RW media)
DVD±RW : Writes to DVD-RW and DVD+RW media (will also typically write to
DVD-R, DVD+R, CD-R and CD-RW media; typically called "Dual Drives" since it
can burn to two different DVD formats)
This article took a look at the more common formats of DVD drives in
order to shed some light on all the choices available. The differences
between them all may be subtle, but the compatibility issues can be quite
frustrating. The simple answer to anyone considering a drive is to forget
about + and – by themselves, and shoot for universal compatibility with a
good DVD±RW with DVD+R DL support.
The Azure™ Services Platform (Azure) is an internet-scale cloud services platform hosted in Microsoft data centers, which provides an operating system and a set of developer services that can be used individually or together. Azure’s flexible and interoperable platform can be used to build new applications to run from the cloud or enhance existing applications with cloud-based capabilities. Its open architecture gives developers the choice to build web applications, applications running on connected devices, PCs, servers, or hybrid solutions offering the best of online and on-premises.
The Azure™ Services Platform provides a range of functionality to build create, migrate and extend applications that span from consumer web to enterprise scenarios. You can use these services individually or together, with either new or existing applications. Click on one of the links below to get started.
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Ultrafobos is another anti mosquito program. Its objective is to emulate diverse ranks of frequencies that are annoying or act on the nervous system of mosquitoes, flies and other insects or animals, thus frightening them and forcing to move away from certain places.
As authors of this anti mosquito program state, its name is made of two words – Ultra representing the abbreviation of extreme frequency, and fobos that comes from the Greek and means fear.
Ultrafobos emits a sound of a certain frequency through the sound card or the small internal loudspeaker of the PC.
Operation is very simple; you only have to define the frequency and duration of the sound. It is also possible to select the frequencies predefined for diverse animals and even teenagers!
The volume Vol: and duration Dur: values are obligatory, but you can also define time Tmp: (how long should the sound last) and repetitions Rpt: (how many times should it be repeated).
The reach of the sound of Ultrafobos anti mosquito software will depend on the power of your loudspeakers, generally any type of card and loudspeaker will serve to act in a room up to a distance of 15 meters or even more, depending on furniture and materials of ceiling, walls and floor.
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that she looks extremely BEAUTIFUL when her LIPS are CLOSED.
2. One GOOD way to REDUCE Alcohol consumption :
Before Marriage - Drink whenever you are SAD,
After Marriage - Drink whenever you are HAPPY
3. Three FASTEST means of Communication :
c. Tell to Woman
Need still FASTER - Tell her NOT to tell ANY ONE.
4. Love your friends not their sisters. Love your sisters not their
5. A man got 2 wishes from GOD. He asked for the Best wine and Best
Next moment, he had the Best Wine and Mother Teresa next to him.
Moral : BE SPECIFIC
6. What is a BEST and WORST news you can hear at the SAME time ?
It is when your Girl Friend says YOU are the BEST KISSER among all your
7. Let us be generous like this : Four Ants are moving through a forest.
They see an ELEPHANT coming towards them. Ant 1 says : we should KILL him.
Ant 2 says : No, Let us break his Leg alone. Ant 3 says : No, we will
just throw him away from our path.
Ant 4 says : No, we will LEAVE him because he is ALONE and we are FOUR.
8. If you do NOT have a Girl Friend - You are missing SOME thing in your
If you HAVE a Girl Friend - You are missing EVERY thing in your life.
9. Question : When do you CONGRATULATE someone for their MISTAKE.
Answer : On their MARRIAGE.
10. When your LIFE is in DARKNESS, PRAY GOD and ask him to free you from
Even after you pray, if U R still in Darkness - Please PAY the
11. Why Government do NOT allow a Man to MARRY 2 Women.
Because per Constitution, you can NOT PUNISH TWICE for the same Mistake.
12. "A Ship is always safe at the shore - but that is NOT what it is built
for" - Albert Einstein
Small Basic is a project that's aimed at bringing "fun" back to programming. By providing a small and easy to learn programming language in a friendly and inviting development environment, Small Basic makes programming a breeze. Ideal for kids and adults alike, Small Basic helps beginners take the first step into the wonderful world of programming.
Microsoft Small Basic aims to make computer programming accessible to beginners.
Small Basic is a project that is focused at making programming accessible and easy for beginners. It consists of three distinct pieces:
* the Language
* the Programming Environment
The Language draws its inspiration from an early variant of BASIC but is based on the modern .Net Framework Platform. The Environment is simple but rich in features, offering beginners several of the benefits that professional programmers have come to expect of a worthy IDE. A rich set of Libraries help beginners learn by writing compelling and interesting programs.
How is it different from VB.Net?
* Small Basic is small - much smaller than VB and supports just a subset of what VB.Net supports.
* You can actually write a compiler using VB.Net
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Windows Live Writer is the approach to write blog posts offline.
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is a very good reason for doing that. It shows some traits of the person
that is you...
Case 1: People who open the masala dosa and eat it: These are the people who
are very open about their life. Everyone one the persons friends would know
all about him/her. I have generally seen guys do this rather than girls.
Some people think that it is a gross way of eating but in truth, these
people are just portraying who they are and how their life is.
Case 2: People who start from both end and approach the masala later: These
are the people who like to wait for the exiting things to come to their
life. Sadly when the times comes, they are not too interested or just do not
know how to enjoy it to the fullest. These are the folks who just want life
as either dry or exiting. They just do not know how to phase their life and
enjoy it no matter what. There are two types of people within this group
Case 2.1: People who do not finish all the masala: These folks just do not
care as much for the fun times as they are already brought down by the harsh
reality of life. The dry periods in their life has left them with so much
scars that they do not want to be really happy when the time is right. They
just take only as much as they needed and end their life. A very sorry state
Case 2.2: People who finish all the masala with the little dosa they have:
These are the folks who just are the extremes. They just go all out in life.
No matter it is dark or bright. They may not enjoy life to the fullest but
they sure make sure that they get every single good and bad thing out of
life. Sometimes these folks are really hard to get along with. They are
either your best friends or your worst enemies. They do not have a middle
path at all.
Case 3: People who start from the middle and proceed to both ends: These are
the people who like to get right to what they think is their best part of
life. Usually these guys finish of the good portions in a hurry and get
stuck with nothing but worst parts of their life. The thing to note among
these people is that the tendency to burn out very early in their life. Like
the above case, there are two kinds of people in this group too.
Case 3.1: People who do not finish the dosa: These folks are really the
saddest of people. They are the ones who tend to end their life as soon as
it hits the bad patch. For them, they only need and want the best things in
life and nothing more. Typically, they are not prepared or tuned to life as
a whole. They just want to enjoy from first till last. Sadly, no one in the
world can live without even an ounce of sadness in life. Not even the
richest of the richest. But to self destruct at the mere sign of distress is
very bad. That is what these guys tend to do. Some learn to live life but
most of them do not.
Case 3.1: People who do finish the dosa: These folks are the typical human
beings. We all enjoy the greatest of times in life and push the sad parts
thinking about the great times in life. Typically the plate is clean and
nothing is left for fate or in life. Happiness and sadness are part of life
and these guys know that and are kind of prepared for it. Life is not always
happy but there are moments of happiness here and there.
Case 4: People who eat the dosa making sure that the masala lasts for the
whole dosa: These people are very rare. These are the people who like to
attain balance in their life. It is hard to displease these people and it is
hard to make them really happy. They like their balance and are very
protective of it. Sadly these are the people who tend to be lonely as anyone
else may upset the balance of their system. Perfectionist to the core and
are very careful. These guys do not make the best company but are needed in
any group to make the group from going hay wire.
Case 5: People who do not share and eat the dosa as if it is precious: These
folks are very protective about their life. They do not want anyone to come
and interfere in their life. They like to hide their true nature and
intensions for their benefit. Beware of such people as they are in every
group for their own need and nothing else.
Case 6: People who offer their first bite to others: These guys are overly
friendly. They do anything to be part of a group and make everyone feel like
the group is important than the individuals. They are the glue that holds
any group together. They are very friendly and bring the best of all the
others in the group. They go out of their way to help other friends. Most
groups should have a person like this and they are the ones who plan the
group outings and other group activities. Once this person is out of the
group, typically the group slowly falls apart.
Case 7: People who take one or two bites and then offer the dosa to others:
These guys care about friends and friendship but they take their time to get
into the group. They take their time in making friends and they typically
are very committed once into the friendship. These guys like to always be in
the side lines and typically do not jump into anything in life. They always
take their time to analyze the situation and then make a decision. These
guys take the better safe than sorry approach.
Case 8: People who wait for others to make the offer first: Typical people I
must say. They are unsure about everything. Even if they wanted to offer,
they will wait till the other person offers the food first. If the other
person is silent, so are these people. They are the followers. They do
terrific idea, they will pitch it to someone else and get their advice
before proceeding. Sadly, most of the elderly world like these types of
Case 9: People who offer dosa only when they cannot finish it on their own:
You all may be familiar with these kinds of people. People who are very
generous only when all their needs are fulfilled. These folks are selfish
but at the same time not misers or greedy. They just want to satisfy
themselves before they give it to the world. They typically do not stuff
themselves nor do they tend to starve. They are very good people who would
give you the best of advices in life. They would make sure that you are not
sad following their advice.
Case 10: People who offer the whole dosa and eat from others plates: These
folks are other extreme. They know what they want, they get what they want
but they cannot enjoy what they want. Instead they tend to settle for other
things in life which satisfies the needs but does not satisfy the person
completely. These guys are termed as born losers cause even when they have
the thing they wanted, they can't stop others from stealing it from them.
So next time you sit with a person eating a masala dosa, look closely and
see if he falls into one of the above categories. You may be surprised
as how much it reveals about the person
what is your birth date?
Sardar: 13th October
Sardar: Oye ullu ke pathe _ _ _ EVERY YEAR
Manager asked to sardar at an interview.
Can you spell a word that has more than 15 letters in it?
Sardar replied: -P-O-S-T-B-O-X.
After returning back from a foreign trip, sardar asked his wife,
Do I look like a foreigner?
Wife: No! Why?
Sardar: In London a lady asked me Are you a foreigner?
One tourist from U.S.A. asked to Sardar: Any great man born in this
Sardar: no sir, only small Babies!!!
Lecturer: write a note on Gandhi Jayanthi
So Sardar writes, 'Gandhi was a great man, but I don't know who is
When sardar was traveling with his wife in an auto, the driver adjusted
mirror. Sardar shouted, 'You are trying to see my wife? Sit back. I will
Interviewer: just imagine you are in 3rd floor, it caught fire and how
will you escape?
Sardar: its simple. I will stop my imagination!!!
Que: - What is the height of stupidity?
Ans: - 2 sardarjis sitting on a motorcycle & fighting for a
once a sardar calls another sardar on the phone and says "Hi, Main Bol Raha
The other sardar replies "Kamaal Hain, Ithe bhi Main Bol Raha Hoon!"
A Sardar had called an Englishman for lunch. There was curd on the table.
The guest asked what is this? The Sardar didn't know proper English, he said
"Milk sleeping in night, morning becomes tight"
Sardar1: - Marte Waqt Aadmi Ko Kya Dena Chahiye?
Sardar2: -Birla cement
Sardar2: - Kyunki Is Cement Mein Jaan Hain
Did you hear about the sardarji who is so rich he has two swimming pools,
one of which is always empty?
It is for people who can't swim!
Santa Singh: Will this bus take me to Jalandhar?
Driver: Which part?
Santa Singh: All of me, of course!
Sardarji calls Air India. 'How long does it take to fly to Amritsar?'
'Just a sec,' says the customer service assistant.
'Thank you.' says the Sardarji and hangs up.
Santa Singh goes to a TV shop and asks, 'Aap ke paas color TV hai kya?'
'Haan' replies shop owner. Santa Singh says, 'Ek hara vala dena!'
Once Santa Singh was riding a cycle and he suddenly hit a girl!
So girl shouted, 'Sala Break nahi maar sakta tha!!!'
And sardarji replied, 'Poori cycle to maar di ab break kya alag se
Banta Singh happened to be in a queue at a railway station ticket counter
with two men ahead of him. 'Ek Punjab Mail dena.' demanded the man in front.
He was given a ticket. 'Ek Punjab Mail dena.' the second man
asked and was handed a ticket. Then came the turn of Banta Singh, 'Ek Punjab
female dena!' 'What do u mean by Punjab female?' asked the clerk. 'It is for
my wife' replied Banta Singh
Boss: Where were you born?
sardar : Punjab ..
Boss : which part ?
sardar : Kya which part ? Whole body born in punjab.
2 sardar were fixing a bomb in a car.
Sardar 1 : What would you do if the bomb explodes while fixing.
sardar 2 : Dont worry, I have a one more.
Sardar : What is the name of your car ?
Lady : I forgot the name, but is starts with "T".
Sardar : Oye Kamaal ki gaadi hai, Tea se start hoti hai. Hamaara gaadi
petrol se start hoti hai.
Sardar was busy removing a wheel from his auto. A man asks sardar why
are you removing a wheel from your auto.
sardar : Cant you read the board. Parking is only for 2 wheeler.
Sardar got into a bus on 1st April when conductor asked for ticket. He gave
Rs.10/- and took the ticket and said April fool. I have pass.
Sardar joined new job. 1st day he worked till late evening on the
Boss was happy and asked what you did till evening.
Sardar : Keyboard alphabets were not in order, so I made it alright.
On a romantic day sardar's girlfriend asks him. Darling on our
engagement day will you give me a ring.
Sardar : Ya sure, from landline or mobile.
Doctor to patient : You will die within 2 hours. Do you want to see any
one before you die?
Patient : Yes. A good doctor.
How will you destroy a submarine full of sardars ?
Simple. Just knock the door and they will open it....
Santa apni girl friend ko I Luv U kehta hai aur gir jata hai.
Gal: Yeh kya kar rahe ho?
Santa: I'm falling in love.
Museum Administrator: That's a 500-year-old statue u've broken.
Banta: Thanks God! I thought it was a new one.
A man to Santa: Aao ji chess khelein
Santa: Tu chal mein sports shoes pehen kar aaya.
At the scene of an accident a man was crying: O God! I have lost my hand,
Santa: Control yourself. Don't cry. See that man. He has lost his head. Is
Santa was getting bitten by mosquitoes the whole night. He got
irritated...drank poison & said,
Ab kaato saalon, sab maroge!
Banta: U cheated me.
Shopkeeper: No, I sold a good radio to u.
Banta: Radio label shows Made in Japan but radio says This is all
NOW THE LAST TWO ULTIMATE :
In an interview,
Interviewer: How does an electric motor run?
Santa: Dhhuuuurrrrrrrrrr. .....
Inteviewer shouts: Stop it.
Santa: Dhhuurrrr dhup dhup dhup...
Tourist: Whose skeleton is that?
Santa: Tipu's skeleton.
Tourist: Whose that smaller skeleton next to it?
Santa: That was Tipu's skeleton when he was child
What does Ubuntu mean?
Ubuntu is an African word meaning 'Humanity to others', or 'I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world
Ubuntu is a community developed operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers. Whether you use it at home, at school or at work Ubuntu contains all the applications you'll ever need, from word processing and email applications, to web server software and programming tools.
Ubuntu is and always will be free of charge. You do not pay any licensing fees. You can download, use and share Ubuntu with your friends, family, school or business for absolutely nothing.
You can get Free Ubuntu CD after requesting.
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Skyfire is a free, downloadable mobile web browser that allows you to experience the internet on your phone exactly like on your PC. Now, you can use the full web from your mobile phone with unprecedented speed and simplicity – without the typical restrictions and limitations that current ‘mobile web’ efforts offer. It’s “The Web”, not some mobile web.
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Reflector is the class browser, explorer, analyzer and documentation viewer for .NET. Reflector allows to easily view, navigate, search, decompile and analyze .NET assemblies in C#, Visual Basic and IL.
It is used to Explore, browse, and analyze .NET assemblies
.NET Reflector enables you to easily view, navigate, and search through, the class hierarchies of .NET assemblies, even if you don't have the code for them. With it, you can decompile and analyze .NET assemblies in C#, Visual Basic, and IL.
Explore .NET assemblies in an easy-to-understand, natural way
Understand the relationships between classes and methods
Find where types are instantiated and exposed
Check that your code has been correctly obfuscated before release
Full support for .NET 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.5
Windows® Shell Integration – Run Reflector.exe /register to register file extension
Assembly lists for .NET 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, Compact Framework 2.0, Compact Framework 3.5, XNA framework, Silverlight, Mono, and Direct X for Managed Code
Click navigation of source code
Find where types are exposed or instantiated
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Exercises help keep eyes healthy
Dr Mahipal Sachdev
Eyes form a vital organ of the body, constantly in use while we do our
activities. They are in use all the time, Then why is the need for
Points to remember
*Never ignore problems like headache, pain in are around the eyes, eyestrain
*Learn how to do eye exercises.
*Consult your doctor before starting an exercise programme.
We need our eyes to work all the time for us and so is the need to take
proper care of them. We are rather trained to keep our bodies fit. We do all
sorts of exercises to keep the body fit, but forget about our eyes.
Eyes are rather overused nowadays as the whole world is accessible on the
television and computers. This has changed our lifestyle. In this age of
information technology, for the maximum hours of the day a person sits in
front of the computer or television with the eyes focused on the screen.
We ignore common symtoms which the body gives us as a signal to take care of
. Doctors commonly see patients turning to them only when the severity of
the symptoms is more or is affecting their work schedules or targets. The
common problems which patients present with are headache, pain in or around
the eyes, eyestrain, sleepiness and feeling like stop working/
reading.Therecan be blurred vision, watering or running of letters
after reading for some
Here are some eye exercises explained which will relieve the eyestrain and
keep our eyes healthy. One should understand that they DO NOT IMPROVE EYE
Palming: One should sit comfortably and rub ones hands together to make them
warm. Keep the eyes closed and cover them lightly with your cupped palms.
Don't apply any pressure on your eyeballs. Place your palms so that the eyes
are covered properly. Make sure that there are no gaps between the fingers
so that no light-rays enter the eyes. Do deep breathing slowly. Relax like
that for three-five minutes and then uncover the eyes. Repeat the palming
for three minutes or more.
Convergence exercise: Hold a pencil in front of you at arm's length. Move
your arm slowly to your nose, and follow the pencil with your eyes until you
can't keep it in focus. Repeat 10 times. This will strengthen the eye
muscles responsible for convergence.
Change of focus: The focus on a distant object for a few seconds and slowly
refocus your eyes on a nearby object at arms' length. Focus for several
seconds and go back to the distant object. Do this five times. Taking short
breaks while working on the computer to stare out to the distant object also
relieves some eyestrain.
Always consult your eye doctor before doing any of these exercises. Don't do
the exercises with your contact lenses on. Do not apply pressure on your
It is more important to do the exercises regularly than to do them for a
Do this for at least a few days and you should notice that when you finish
working your eyes aren't as tired as usual and start your day with shining
and relaxed eyes!
*The writer is Chairman and Medical Director, Centre for Sight, New Delhi.
One evening a grandson was talking to his grandfather about current events.
The grandson asked his grandfather what he thought about the shootings at
schools, the computer age, and just things in general.
The Grandfather replied, Well, let me think a minute,
I was born before:
There were no:
laser beams or
; ball-point pens
Man had not invented:
clothes dryers and the clothes were hung out to dry in the fresh
man hadnt yet walked on the moon
Your Grandmother and I got married first, . . . and then lived together.
Every family had a father and a mother.
Until I was 25, I called every man older than me,Sir.
And after I turned 25, I still called policemen and every man with a title,
We were before gay-rights, computer- dating, dual careers, daycare centers,
and group therapy.
Our lives were governed by the Ten Commandments, good judgment, and common
We were taught to know the difference between right and wrong and to stand
up and take responsibility for our actions.
Serving your country was a privilege; living in this country was a bigger
We thought fast food was what people ate during Lent.
Having a meaningful relationship meant getting along with your cousins.
Time-sharing meant time the family spent together in the evenings and
weekends-not purchasing condominiums.
We never heard of FM radios, tape decks, CDs, electric typewriters, yogurt,
or guys wearing earrings.
We listened to the Big Bands, Jack Benny, and the Presidents speeches on
And I dont ever remember any kid blowing his brains out listening to Tommy
If you saw anything with Made in Japan on it, it was junk.
The term making out referred to how you did on your school exam.
Pizza Hut, McDonalds, and instant coffee were unheard of.
We had 5 &10-cent stores where you could actually buy things for 5 and 10
Ice-cream cones, phone calls, rides on a streetcar, and a Pepsi were all a
And if you didnt want to splurge, you could spend your nickel on enough
stamps to mail 1 letter and 2 postcards.
In my day:
grass was mowed,
coke was a cold drink,
pot was something your mother cooked in and
rock music was your grandmother s lullaby.
Aids were helpers in the Principals office,
chip meant a piece of wood,
hardware was found in a hardware store and
software wasnt even a word.
And we were the last generation to actually believe that a lady needed a
husband to have a baby. No wonder people call us old and confused and say
there is a generation gap... and how old do you think I am?
Read on to see
I am 59 !!
Usually not. It can be done, but only if the data being compressed isn't very differential. This means you can compress text with good a ratio (there are only 26 lower-case characters, 26 upper-case characters and 10 numbers plus a few standard symbols like '!@#$...',and usually no more than 64 different symbols in standard text, but every symbol is saved using 8 or 16 bits, which gives 256 or 65536 combinations per symbol), but you cannot compress graphics or music very well.
KGB Archiver is the compression tool with an unbelievably high compression rate. Unfortunately, in spite of its powerful compression rate, it has high hardware requirements (I recommend processor with 1,5GHz clock and 256MB of RAM as an essential minimum). One of the advantages of KGB Archiver is also AES-256 encryption which is used to encrypt the archives. This is one of the strongest encryptions known for man.
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Virtual PC lets you create separate virtual machines on your Windows desktop, each of which virtualizes the hardware of a complete physical computer. Use virtual machines to run operating systems such as MS-DOS, Windows, and OS/2. You can run multiple operating systems at once on a single physical computer and switch between them as easily as switching applications—instantly, with a mouse click. Virtual PC is perfect for any scenario in which you need to support multiple operating systems, whether you use it for tech support, legacy application support, training, or just for consolidating physical computers.
Save time and money as Virtual PC allows you to maintain the compatibility of legacy and custom applications during migration to new operating systems and increases the efficiency of support, development, and training staffs.
With Microsoft® Virtual PC 2007, you can create and run one or more virtual machines, each with its own operating system, on a single computer. This provides you with the flexibility to use different operating systems on one physical computer.
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Databases must often allow the real-time processing of SQL transactions to support e-commerce and other time-critical applications. This type of processing is known as online transaction processing (OLTP).
online transaction processing Used in a system where clients store and interrogate data which is important to an organization's business. Typical applications include stock control, airline seat reservation, and share dealing. Such applications require secure data and guaranteed response times for TRANSACTIONS. They were once only found on MAINFRAME COMPUTER systems but they are increasingly being found on CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING systems. Online transaction processing systems which are DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS provide major technical challenges in terms of response time, security and reliability.
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Microsoft is taking these steps as part of its commitment to working with communities, national governments and local law enforcement agencies around the world to protect its customers and partners and promote the value of intellectual property as a driver of innovation.
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Through the ages, the Moon, our closest celestial body has aroused curiosity in our mind much more than any other objects in the sky. This led to scientific study of the Moon, driven by human desire and quest for knowledge. This is also reflected in the ancient verse. Exploration of the moon got a boost with the advent of the space age and the decades of sixties and seventies saw a myriad of successful unmanned and manned missions to moon.Following this, a hiatus of about one and a half-decade followed. During this period we refined our knowledge about the origin and evolution of the moon and its place as a link to understand the early history of the Solar System and of the earth.
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Did you know that you can subscribe to the digital editions of MSDN Magazine and Dr. Dobbs Journal for FREE?
Go to http://msdn2.microsoft.com/hi-in/bb736747.aspx to see samples of the digital magazine.
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BOSS GNU/Linux is:
* full featured: BOSS includes more than 18200 software packages at present. Users can select which packages to install; BOSS provides a tool for this purpose. You can find a list and descriptions of the packages currently available in BOSS Site.
* free to use and redistribute: There is no consortium membership or payment required to participate in its distribution and development. All packages that are formally part of BOSS GNU/Linux are free to redistribute, usually under terms specified by the GNU General Public License.
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