Row-level function that returns an absolute value.
Command used to change a column's size or type in a table.
Command used to modify a table's definition.
Logical operator that, when used in a WHEREclause, means that both criteria have to be met for a row to be included in the result set.
Function used in ORDER BY to put a SQL result set in ascending order.
Aggregate function used to average a group of row values.
An operator used to determine whether a value occurs within a given range of values (inclusive); used with a WHERE clause.
Integer data type that can store numbers from -263 to 263 - 1.
Data type used to store strings of bits.
Data type that consumes only a single bit of storage.
Conversion function used to change a data type of a column within a query.
Row-level function that returns the next larger integer.
Character data type used when the column length is known and unvarying.
Data type used to store any combination of letters, numbers, and symbols.
String function that returns the starting position of a specified pattern.
Integrity constraint used to create bounds for a column value.
Restrictions that can be placed on values when creating database objects such as tables and views.
Conversion function used to explicitly convert to a given data type within in a query.
Function used to count the total number of rows in a result set.
Group function that counts the number of rows where attribute is not NULL.
Command used to create an index.
Command used to create a database.
Command used to create a synonym.
Command used to create a table.
Command used to create a view.
A query option used to generate a Cartesian product.
Oracle equivalent of DATETIME .
Date function that adds to a specified part of a date.
Date function that returns the difference between two dates.
Date function that controls how SQL Server interprets date constants that are entered for dates.
Date function that returns the specified part of the date requested.
Data type that can be used for dates.
Date function that extracts a day from a date.
Data type; synonym for DECIMAL data type.
Numeric data type whose storage type varies based on a specified precision.
Command used to create variables on the fly within a script.
Command that deletes rows in a table that may satisfy a given condition.
Function used in ORDER BY to put a SQL result set into descending order.
Result set function that omits rows that contain duplicate data.
Command used to delete a column in a table.
Command used to delete a named constraint.
Command used to delete an index.
Command used to delete a synonym.
Command used to delete a table.
Command used to delete a view.
A keyword in a SQL statement that returns true in a WHERE clause if the subquery following it returns at least one row.
Decimal data type that has a precision of 15 digits.
Row-level function which returns the next lower integer value when a number contains decimal places.
Date function that returns the current system date and time.
Produces one summary row for the aggregate value of all values for a given column.
Global unique identifier; UNIQUEIDENTIFIER data type guarantees worldwide uniqueness, even among unconnected computers.
Part of a SQL statement that is used to determine which groups of a GROUP BY will be included in the result set.
Large object binary data type; used to store pictures.
Logical operator for a WHERE clause that tests for inclusion in a named set.
Integer data type that can store numbers from -231 to 231 - 1.
Command used to create an index on a table by a certain column value.
Command used to combine two tables in an equi-join operation.
INSERT INTO.. SELECT
A way to insert many rows into a new table at one time.
A way to insert values into a table one row at a time.
Command that allows for the addition of new rows to a table.
Numeric data type that has no digits after the decimal point.
Set operation that combines two queries such that it returns all rows that are the same in both result sets.
IS NOT NULL
Function that tests for the NOT NULL condition.
Function that returns a true value if a data item contains a null.
Command used to join two tables; synonymous with INNER JOIN.
String function that returns the left portion of a string up to a given number of characters.
Same as LEFT OUTER JOIN .
LEFT OUTER JOIN
A join where all the rows from the first (left) table are kept in the result set, regardless of whether they have matching rows in the second (right) table.
String function that returns the length of a string.
A WHERE clause option that matches a particular pattern.
Oracle equivalent of TEXT data type.
String function used to convert a string to lowercase.
String function that removes blanks or other named character from the beginning of a string.
Aggregate function that returns the highest of all values from a column in a set of rows.
Aggregate function that returns the lowest of all values from a column in a set of rows.
Set operation that returns only those rows from the result of the first query that are not in the result of the second query; not available in SQL Server.
Data type used with currency data.
Date function that extracts the month from a date.
A data type; synonym for NCHAR data type.
Fixed-length Unicode character data type.
Operator that reverses the effect of any logical operator such as IN, LIKE, and EXISTS.
Operator that allows you to determine whether a value does not occur within a given range of values.
Operator that returns true in a WHERE clause if the subquery following it returns no rows.
Operator that returns true if an attribute has a non-null value.
NOT NULL Constraint
Integrity constraint that denies the creation of a row when an attribute has a null value.
Value that is unknown.
Function that returns a NULL if a certain condition is met in an expression.
Synonym for DECIMAL data type.
Variable-length Unicode character data type.
Binary logical operator that returns a true value if either one of the expressions is true.
Clause that sorts the results of a query before they are displayed.
Join where rows from a table are kept in the result set although there is no matching row in the other table used in the join.
Function that is used to return a certain percentage of records that fall at the top of a range specified.
Constraint used to create a primary key in a table; used in CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE commands.
Decimal data type that has a precision of seven digits.
Constraint part that defines the table name and key used to reference another table.
String function that returns the right portion of a string.
Same as RIGHT OUTER JOIN .
RIGHT OUTER JOIN
Join where all the rows from the second (right) relation are kept whether matched or not in a join operation.
Function used to round numbers to a specified number of decimal places.
Function that returns the first n rows.
String function that removes blanks from the right end of a string.
Command that allows you to retrieve rows from tables (or views) in a database.
Command used to assign values to variables.
Date function used to change the format in which SQL Server reads in dates.
Data type used to store dates.
Integer data type that can store numbers between -215 to 215 - 1.
Data type that can be used with currency data.
Row-level function that returns the square of a number.
Data type used to store values of any data type except TEXT or IMAGE.
Row-level function that returns the square root of positive numeric values.
Conversion function that always converts from a number to a character data type.
String function that returns part of a string.
Group function that adds up all the values for a column value in a set of rows.
A two-dimensional (row by column) arrangement of data.
Character large object data type.
Integer data type that can store numbers between 0 and 255.
Function that returns a specified number of records from the top of a result set.
Set operation that combines two queries such that it returns all distinct rows for the result sets of both queries. The two queries must have union-compatible result sets.
Set operation that combines two queries and returns all rows from both the SELECT statements (queries). A UNION ALL also includes duplicate rows. The two queries must have union-compatible result sets.
Integrity constraint that disallows duplicate entries for an attribute even though the column is not a primary key.
Data type that guarantees uniqueness of the identifier, even among unconnected computers.
Command that changes values in specified columns in specified tables .
String function used to display all output in uppercase.
Command used to open a database.
Universal unique identifier; the UNIQUEIDENTIFIER data type that guarantees uniqueness, even among unconnected computers.
Data type used to store variable-length binary data.
Character data type used when the field length is varying.
Oracle equivalent of VARCHAR.
Row filter part of a SQL statement that allows you to specify criteria on column values for rows that are being selected from a table.
Clause used with the TOP function to retrieve rows that are ties.
A new SQL Server data type used to model complex data.
Date function that extracts the year from a date.