100 .NET Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
Ans. Server side code will execute at server (where the website is hosted) end, & all the business logic will execute at server end where as client side code will execute at client side (usually written in javascript, vbscript, jscript) at browser end.

Q2. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
Ans. Server side code.

Q3. How to make sure that value is entered in an asp:Textbox control?
Ans. Use a RequiredFieldValidator control.

A Small Story about Girl a Boy

A Small Story

A boy and a girl were playing together. The boy had a collection of marbles. The girl had some sweets with her. The boy told the girl that he will give her all his marbles in exchange for her sweets. The girl agreed. The boy kept the biggest and the most beautiful marble aside and gave the rest to the girl. The girl gave him all her sweets as she had promised.

That night, the girl slept peacefully. But the boy couldn't sleep as he kept wondering if the girl had hidden some sweets from him the way he had hidden his best marble.

Moral of the story:

If you don't give hundred percent in a relationship, you'll always keep doubting if the other person has given his / her hundred percent... This is applicable for any relationship like love, friendship, employer- employee relationship etc.  

Give your hundred percent to everything you do and sleep peacefully.

An absolutely Brilliant Joke

An absolutely Brilliant Joke, ENJOY!!!


A Woman was out golfing one day when she hit the ball into the woods.
She went into the woods to look for it and found a frog in a trap.
The frog said to her, "If you release me from this trap, I will grant you three wishes."
The woman freed the frog, and the frog said, "Thank you, but I failed to mention that there was a condition to your wishes.

 Whatever you wish for, your husband will get times ten!"
The woman said, "That's okay." For her first wish, she wanted to be the most beautiful woman in the world.
The frog warned her, "You do realize that this wish will also make your husband the most handsome man in the world, an Adonis whom women will flock to". The woman replied,





"That's okay, because I will be the most beautiful Woman and he will have eyes only for me."
So, KAZAM-she's the most beautiful Woman in the world! For her second wish, she wanted to be the richest woman in the world.
The frog said, "That will make your husband the richest man in the world.
And he will be ten times richer than you. " The woman said, "That's okay, because what's mine is his and what's his is mine."
So, KAZAM-she's the richest woman in the world!


................ The frog then inquired about her third wish, and she answered, "I'd like a mild heart attack."





Moral of the story: Women are clever. Don't mess with them.



Attention female readers: This is the end of the joke for you. Stop here and continue feeling good.

Male readers: Please scroll down.



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The man had a heart attack ten times milder than his wife!!!


Moral of the story: Women are really dumb but think they're really smart.

Let them continue to think that way and just enjoy the show

PS: If you are a woman and are still reading this; it only goes to show that women never listen!!!

Awesome Story - Must Read It

One young academically excellent person went to apply for a managerial position in a big company.
He passed the first interview; the director did the last interview, made the last decision.

The director discovered from the CV that the youth's academic achievements were excellent all the way, from the secondary school until the postgraduate research, never had a year when he did not score.

The director asked, "Did you obtain any scholarships in school?" the youth answered "none".

Keyboard Short cut Keys for Ubuntu Linux

Ctrl + A : Select all
Ctrl + C : Copy the highlighted content to clipboard
Ctrl + V : Paste the clipboard content
Ctrl + N : New (Create a new document, not in terminal)
Ctrl + O : Open a document
Ctrl + S : Save the current document
Ctrl + P : Print the current document
Ctrl + W : Close the close document
Ctrl + Q : Quit the current application
For Gnome
Ctrl + Alt + F1 : Switch to the first virtual terminal
Ctrl + Alt + F2(F3)(F4)(F5)(F6) : Select the different virtual terminals
Ctrl + Alt + F7 : Restore back to the current terminal session with X
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace : Restart GNOME
Alt + Tab : Switch between open programs
Ctrl + Alt + L : Lock the screen.
Alt + F1 : opens the Applications menu
Alt + F2 : opens the Run Application dialog box.
Alt + F3 : opens the Deskbar Applet
Alt + F4 : closes the current window.
Alt + F5 : unmaximizes the current window.
Alt + F7 : move the current window
Alt + F8 : resizes the current window.
Alt + F9 : minimizes the current window.
Alt + F10 : maximizes the current window.
Alt + Space : opens the window menu.
Ctrl + Alt + + : Switch to next X resolution
Ctrl + Alt + – : Switch to previous X resolution
Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right : move to the next/previous workspace
Shortcuts for Terminal
Ctrl + A : Move cursor to beginning of line
Ctrl + E : Move cursor to end of line
Ctrl + C : kills the current process.
Ctrl + Z : sends the current process to the background.
Ctrl + D : logs you out.
Ctrl + R : finds the last command matching the entered letters.
Enter a letter, followed by Tab + Tab : lists the available commands beginning with those letters.
Ctrl + U : deletes the current line.
Ctrl + K : deletes the command from the cursor right.
Ctrl + W : deletes the word before the cursor.
Ctrl + L : clears the terminal output
Shift + Ctrl + C : copy the highlighted command to the clipboard.
Shift + Ctrl + V (or Shift + Insert) : pastes the contents of the clipboard.
Alt + F : moves forward one word.
Alt + B : moves backward one word.
Arrow Up/Down : browse command history
Shift + PageUp / PageDown : Scroll terminal output
Shortcuts for Nautilus
Shift + Ctrl + N : Create New Folder
Ctrl + T : Delete selected file(s) to trash
Alt + ENTER : Show File/Folder Properties
Ctrl + 1 : Toggle View As Icons
Ctrl + 2 : Toggle View As List
Shift + Right : Open Directory (Only in List View)
Shift + Left : Close Directory (Only in List View)
Ctrl + S : Select Pattern
F2 : Rename File
Ctrl + A : Select all files and folders
Ctrl + W : Close Window
Ctrl + Shift + W : Close All Nautilus Windows
Ctrl + R : Reload Nautilus Window
Alt + Up : Open parent directory
Alt + Left : Back
Alt + Right : Forward
Alt + Home : go to Home folder
Ctrl + L : go to location bar
F9 : Show sidepane
Ctrl + H : Show Hidden Files
Ctrl + + : Zoom In
Ctrl + – : Zoom Out
Ctrl + 0 : Normal Size
For Firefox:
Ctrl+L : Firefox Address Bar
Ctrl+pgup : Next Tab (left to right)
Ctrl+pgdn : Previous Tab (right to left)
Ctrl+T : New Tab
Ctrl+R / f5: Reload Page
Ctrl+U : View Page Source

Informatica 7 Vs Informatica 8

The architecture of Power Center 8 has changed a lot:
1. PC8 is service-oriented for modularity, scalability and flexibility.
2. The Repository Service and Integration Service (as replacement for Rep Server and Informatica Server) can be run on different computers in a network (so called nodes), even redundantly.
3. Management is centralized, that means services can be started and stopped on nodes via a central web interface.
4. Client Tools access the repository via that centralized machine, resources are distributed dynamically.
5. Running all services on one machine is still possible, of course.

Data Warehousing Interview Questions and Answers

What is Data warehousing?
A data warehouse can be considered as a storage area where interest specific or relevant data is stored irrespective of the source. What actually is required to create a data warehouse can be considered as Data Warehousing. Data warehousing merges data from multiple sources into an easy and complete form.

What are fact tables and dimension tables?
As mentioned, data in a warehouse comes from the transactions. Fact table in a data warehouse consists of facts and/or measures. The nature of data in a fact table is usually numerical. On the other hand, dimension table in a data warehouse contains fields used to describe the data in fact tables. A dimension table can provide additional and descriptive information (dimension) of the field of a fact table.
e.g. If I want to know the number of resources used for a task, my fact table will store the actual measure (of resources) while my Dimension table will store the task and resource details. Hence, the relation between a fact and dimension table is one to many.

Networking based Interview Questions

1. What is an IP address?
2. What is a subnet mask?
3. What is ARP?
4. What is ARP Cache Poisoning?
5. What is the ANDing process?
6. What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one?
7. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the
8. Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway?
9. What is a subnet?
10. What is APIPA?
11. What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the
12. numbers, just the ideas behind them)
13. What is RFC 1918?
14. What is CIDR?
15. You have the following Network ID: 192.115.103.64/27. What is the IP range for your network?
16. You have the following Network ID: 131.112.0.0. You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use?
17. You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools.
18. How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination?
19. What does the ping 192.168.0.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do?
20. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it?
21. Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address.
22. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios.
23. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients?
24. Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure.
25. What is DHCPINFORM?
26. Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS.
27. What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network?
28. What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP?
29. How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class?
30. What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure?
31. DNS zones – describe the differences between the 4 types.
32. DNS record types – describe the most important ones.
33. Describe the process of working with an external domain name.
34. Describe the importance of DNS to AD.
35. Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet.
36. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean?
37. What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out?
38. What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause?
39. What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for?
40. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD?
41. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS?
42. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones.
43. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones?
44. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes.
45. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones?
46. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding?
47. What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use?
48. How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer?
49. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server?
50. What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for?
51. What is WINS and when do we use it?
52. Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS?
53. Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications.
54. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it?
55. Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS.
56. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router.
57. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few.
58. What are router interfaces? What types can they be?
59. In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters?
60. What is NAT?
61. What is the real difference between NAT and PAT?
62. How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003?
63. How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT?
64. What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively?
65. What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it?
66. What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS?
67. What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD?
68. What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies?
69. What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with?
70. How does SSL work?
71. How does IPSec work?
72. How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers?
73. What types of authentication can IPSec use?
74. What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec?
75. How do I monitor IPSec?
76. Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet
types do I see?
77. What can you do with NETSH?
78. How do I look at the open ports on my machine?

Android Interview Questions and Answers

What is android?
Android is a stack of software for mobile devices which has Operating System, middleware and some key applications. The application executes within its own process and its own instance of Dalvik Virtual Machine. Many Virtual Machines run efficiently by a DVM device. DVM executes Java language’s byte code which later transforms into .dex format files.

What are the features of Android?
Components can be reused and replaced by the application framework.
Optimized DVM for mobile devices
SQLite enables to store the data in a structured manner.
Supports GSM telephone and Bluetooth, WiFi, 3G and EDGE technologies
The development is a combination of a device emulator, debugging tools, memory profiling and plug-in for Eclipse IDE.
Why to use Android?
Android is useful because:
It is simple and powerful SDK
Licensing, Distribution or Development fee is not required
Easy to Import third party Java library
Supporting platforms are – Linux, Mac Os, Windows

Android Interview Questions and Answers
Android Interview Questions and Answers
Describe Android Application Architecture.
Android Application Architecture has the following components:
Services – like Network Operation
Intent - To perform inter-communication between activities or services
Resource Externalization - such as strings and graphics
Notification signaling users - light, sound, icon, notification, dialog etc.
Content Providers - They share data between applications
What is the TTL (Time to Live)? Why is it required?
TTL is a value in data packet of Internet Protocol. It communicates to the network router whether or not the packet should be in the network for too long or discarded. Usually, data packets might not be transmitted to their intended destination within a stipulated period of time. The TTL value is set by a system default value which is an 8-bit binary digit field in the header of the packet. The purpose of TTL is, it would specify certain time limit in seconds, for transmitting the packet header. When the time is exhausted, the packet would be discarded. Each router receives the subtracts count, when the packet is discarded, and when it becomes zero, the router detects the discarded packets and sends a message, Internet Control Message Protocol message back to the originating host.
Explain IP datagram, Fragmentation and MTU.
IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has fields like Version, header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag, protocol, Time to live, Identification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload.
MTU:- Maximum Transmission Unit is the size of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. The size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time of connection
Fragmentation is a process of breaking the IP packets into smaller pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled.
Explain about the exceptions of Android.
The following are the exceptions that are supported by Android
InflateException : When an error conditions are occurred, this exception is thrown
Surface.OutOfResourceException: When a surface is not created or resized, this exception is thrown
SurfaceHolder.BadSurfaceTypeException: This exception is thrown from the lockCanvas() method, when invoked on a Surface whose is SURFACE_TYPE_PUSH_BUFFERS
WindowManager.BadTokenException: This exception is thrown at the time of trying to add view an invalid WindowManager.LayoutParamstoken.
What are the differences between a domain and a workgroup?
In a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. On the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other. In a domain, user doesn’t need an account to logon on a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. In a work group user needs to have an account for every computer. In a domain, Computers can be on different local networks. In a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network.
What are the dialog boxes that are supported in android? Explain.
Android supports 4 dialog boxes:
AlertDialog : An alert dialog box supports 0 to 3 buttons and a list of selectable elements, including check boxes and radio buttons. Among the other dialog boxes, the most suggested dialog box is the alert dialog box.
ProgressDialog: This dialog box displays a progress wheel or a progress bar. It is an extension of AlertDialog and supports adding buttons.
DatePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting a date by the user.
TimePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting time by the user.
What is needed to make a multiple choice list with a custom view for each row?
Multiple choice list can be viewed by making the CheckBox android:id value be “@android:id /text1". That is the ID used by Android for the CheckedTextView in simple_list_item_multiple_choice.
How to select more than one option from list in android xml file? Give an example.
Specify android id, layout height and width as depicted in the following example.
Describe a real time scenario where android can be used
Imagine a situation that you are in a country where no one understands the language you speak and you can not read or write. However, you have mobile phone with you.
With a mobile phone with android, the Google translator translates the data of one language into another language by using XMPP to transmit data. You can type the message in English and select the language which is understood by the citizens of the country in order to reach the message to the citizens.
Describe the APK format.
The APK file is compressed the AndroidManifest.xml file, application code (.dex files), resource files, and other files. A project is compiled into a single .apk file.
What is an action?
A description of something that an Intent sender desires.
What is activity?
A single screen in an application, with supporting Java code.
What is intent?
A class (Intent) describes what a caller desires to do. The caller sends this intent to Android's intent resolver, which finds the most suitable activity for the intent.
How is nine-patch image different from a regular bitmap?
It is a resizable bitmap resource that can be used for backgrounds or other images on the device. The NinePatch class permits drawing a bitmap in nine sections. The four corners are unscaled; the four edges are scaled in one axis, and the middle is scaled in both axes.
What languages does Android support for application development?
Android applications are written using the Java programming language.
What is a resource?
A user-supplied XML, bitmap, or other file, injected into the application build process, which can later be loaded from code.
How will you record a phone call in Android? How to get a handle on Audio Stream for a call in Android?
Permissions.PROCESS_OUTGOING_CALLS: Allows an application to monitor, modify, or abort outgoing calls.
What's the difference between file, class and activity in android?
File - It is a block of arbitrary information, or resource for storing information. It can be of any type.
Class - Its a compiled form of .Java file . Android finally used this .class files to produce an executable apk
Activity - An activity is the equivalent of a Frame/Window in GUI toolkits. It is not a file or a file type it is just a class that can be extended in Android for loading UI elements on view.
What is a Sticky Intent?
sendStickyBroadcast() performs a sendBroadcast (Intent) that is "sticky," i.e. the Intent you are sending stays around after the broadcast is complete, so that others can quickly retrieve that data through the return value of registerReceiver (BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter). In all other ways, this behaves the same as sendBroadcast(Intent).
One example of a sticky broadcast sent via the operating system is ACTION_BATTERY_CHANGED. When you call registerReceiver() for that action -- even with a null BroadcastReceiver -- you get the Intent that was last broadcast for that action. Hence, you can use this to find the state of the battery without necessarily registering for all future state changes in the battery.
How do you implement push vs. pull stacks in Android?
Creating an Android Application using the Eclipse Plugin
Using the Android Eclipse plugin is the fastest and easiest way to start creating a new Android application. The plugin automatically generates the correct project structure for your application, and keeps the resources compiled for you automatically.
It is still a good idea to know what is going on though. Take a look at Overview of an Android Application to understand the basics of how an Android application works. It is also recommended that you take a look at the ApiDemos application and the other sample applications in the samples/ folder in the SDK.
Finally, a great way to started with Android development in Eclipse is to follow both the Hello Android and Notepad code tutorials. In particular, the start of the Hello Android tutorial is an excellent introduction to creating a new Android application in Eclipse.
Can I write code for Android using C/C++?
Android only supports applications written using the Java programming language at this time.
What languages does Android support?
Android applications are written using the Java programming language.
Features of Android
Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components
Dalvik virtual machine optimized for mobile devices
Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine
Optimized graphics powered by a custom 2D graphics library; 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES 1.0 specification (hardware acceleration optional)
SQLite for structured data storage
Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
GSM Telephony (hardware dependent)
Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi (hardware dependent)
Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer (hardware dependent)
Rich development environment including a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE
What is Android Runtime?
Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.
Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.
The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.
Find the answers for the following
Application lifecycle
When to use a service
How to use a broadcast receiver and register it both in the manifest and in code
Intent filters
Stuff about what manifest attributes and tags mean
The types of flags to run an application
FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK
FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP
How to do data intensive calculations using threads
Passing large objects (that can't be passed via intents and shouldn't be serialized) via a service
Binding to a service and the service lifecycle
How to persist data (both savedInstanceState and more permanent ways)

Informatica Interview Questions and Answers

What can you do to increase performance or explain Performance tuning in Informatica?
The goal of performance tuning is to optimize session performance so sessions run during the available load window for the Informatica Server.Increase the session performance by following:
The performance of the Informatica Server is related to network connections. Data generally moves across a network at less than 1 MB per second, whereas a local disk moves data five to twenty times faster. Thus network connections often affect on session performance.So avoid network connections.

Flat files: If your flat files stored on a machine other than the Informatica server, move those files to the machine that consists of Informatica server.
Relational data sources: Minimize the connections to sources, targets and Informatica server to improve session performance.Moving target database into server system may improve session performance.
Staging areas: If you use staging areas you force Informatica server to perform multiple data passes.Removing of staging areas may improve session performance.
You can run the multiple Informatica servers’ against the same repository.Distributing the session load to multiple Informatica servers may improve session performance.
Run the Informatica server in ASCII data movement mode improves the session performance. Because ASCII data movement mode stores a character value in one byte.Unicode mode takes 2 bytes to store a character.
If a session joins multiple source tables in one Source Qualifier, optimizing the query may improve performance. Also, single table select statements with an ORDER BY or GROUP BY clause may benefit from optimization such as adding indexes.
We can improve the session performance by configuring the network packet size, which allows
data to cross the network at one time. To do this go to server manger, choose server configure database connections.
If your target consists key constraints and indexes you slow the loading of data. To improve the session performance in this case drop constraints and indexes before you run the session and rebuild them after completion of session.
Running parallel sessions by using concurrent batches will also reduce the time of loading the
data. So concurrent batches may also increase the session performance.
Partitioning the session improves the session performance by creating multiple connections to sources and targets and loads data in parallel pipe lines.
In some cases if a session contains an aggregator transformation, you can use incremental aggregation to improve session performance.
Avoid transformation errors to improve the session performance.
If the session contained lookup transformation you can improve the session performance by enabling the look up cache.
If your session contains filter transformation, create that filter transformation nearer to the sources or you can use filter condition in source qualifier.
Aggreagator, Rank and joiner transformation may often decrease the session performance .Because they must group data before processing it. To improve session performance in this case use sorted ports option.

How do you handle decimal places while importing a flat file into Informatica?
While importing flat file definition just specify the scale for a numeric data type. In the mapping, the flat file source supports only number data type(no decimal and integer). In the SQ associated with that source will have a data type as decimal for that number port of the source.
Source - Number data type port - SQ - decimal data type. Integer is not supported. Hence decimal is taken care.
What is the use of incremental aggregation? Explain in brief with an example?
It’s a session option. When the Informatica server performs incremental aggregation, it passes new source data through the mapping and uses historical chache data to perform new aggregation calculations incrementally. For performance we will use it.
Differences between Normalizer and Normalizer transformation?
Normalizer: It is a transformation mainly used for Cobol sources,it changes the rows into columns and columns into rows
Normalization: To remove the redundancy and inconsistency
What is the target load order?
You specify the target load order based on source qualifiers in a mapping. If you have the multiple source qualifiers connected to the multiple targets, you can designate the order in which Informatica server loads data into the targets.
What are the output files that the Informatica server creates during the session run?
Informatica server log: Informatica server(on Unix) creates a log for all status and error messages(default name: pm.server.log). It also creates an error log for error
messages. These files will be created in Informatica home directory.
Session log file: Informatica server creates session log file for each session. It writes information about session into log files such as initialization process, creation of sql commands for reader and writer threads, errors encountered and load summary. The amount of detail in session log file depends on the tracing level that you set.
Session detail file: This file contains load statistics for each target in mapping. Session detail include information such as table name, number of rows written or rejected you can view this file by double clicking on the session in monitor window.
Performance detail file: This file contains information known as session performance details which helps you where performance can be improved. To generate this file select the performance detail option in the session property sheet.
Reject file: This file contains the rows of data that the writer does not write to targets.
Control file: Informatica server creates control file and a target file when you run a session that uses the external loader. The control file contains the information about the target flat file such as data format and loading instructions for the external loader.
Post session email: Post session email allows you to automatically communicate information about a session run to designated recipents.You can create two different messages. One if the session completed successfully the other if the session fails.
Indicator file: If you use the flat file as a target, you can configure the informatica server to create indicator file. For each target row, the indicator file contains a number to indicate whether the row was marked for insert, update, delete or reject.
Output file: If session writes to a target file, the informatica server creates the target file based on file properties entered in the session property sheet.
Cache files: When the informatica server creates memory cache it also creates cache files.
For the following circumstances informatica server creates index and data cache files:
Aggregator transformation
Joiner transformation
Rank transformation
Lookup transformation
What is Data driven?
The informatica server follows instructions coded into update strategy transformations with in the session mapping determine how to flag records for insert, update, delete or reject. If you do not choose data driven option setting, the informatica server ignores all update strategy transformations in the mapping.
How the informatica server sorts the string values in Rank transformation?
We can run informatica server either in UNICODE data moment mode or ASCII data moment mode.
Unicode mode: In this mode informatica server sorts the data as per the sorted order in session.
ASCII Mode: In this mode informatica server sorts the date as per the binary order.
When do you use an unconnected lookup and connected lookup?
Or
what is the difference between dynamic and static lookup?
Or
Why and when do we use dynamic and static lookup?
In static lookup cache, you cache all the lookup data at the starting of the session. In dynamic lookup cache, you go and query the database to get the lookup value for each record which needs the lookup. Static lookup cache adds to the session run time, but it saves time as informatica does not need to connect to your database every time it needs to lookup. Depending on how many rows in your mapping needs a lookup, you can decide on this. Also remember that static lookup eats up space. so remember to select only those columns which are needed.
How do we do unit testing in Informatica? How do we load data in Informatica?
Unit testing in Informatica are of two types
1. Quantitative testing
2. Qualitative testing
Steps:
1. First validate the mapping
2.Create session on the mapping and then run work flow.
Once the session is succeeded then right click on session and go for statistics tab.There you can see how many numbers of source rows are applied and how many number of rows loaded in to targets and how many number of rows rejected. This is called Quantitative testing.
If once rows are successfully loaded then we will go for qualitative testing.
Steps:
1.Take the DATM (DATM means where all business rules are mentioned to the corresponding source columns) and check whether the data is loaded according to the DATM in to target table. If any data is not loaded according to the DATM then go and check in the code and rectify it.
This is called Qualitative testing.This is what a developer will do in Unit Testing.
Explain error handling in Informatica with examples?
There is one file called the bad file which generally has the format as *.bad and it contains the records rejected by informatica server. There are two parameters one for the types of row and other for the types of columns. The row indicators signify what operation is going to take place (i.e. insertion, deletion, updating etc.). The column indicators contain information regarding why the column has been rejected. (Such as violation of not null constraint, value error, overflow etc.) If one rectifies the error in the data present in the bad file and then reloads the data in the target, then the table will contain only valid data.
What is power center repository?
Standalone repository: A repository that functions individually, unrelated and unconnected to other repositories.
Global repository: (Power Center only.) The centralized repository in a domain, a group of connected repositories. Each domain can contain one global repository. The global repository can contain common objects to be shared throughout the domain through global shortcuts.
Local repository. (Power Center only.) A repository within a domain that is not the global repository. Each local repository in the domain can connect to the global repository and use objects in its shared folders.
Explain difference between static and dynamic cache with one example?
Static Cache: Once the data is cached, it will not change. Example unconnected lookup uses static cache.
Dynamic Cache: The cache is updated as to reflect the update in the table (or source) for which it is referring to. (Ex. connected lookup).
What is update strategy transformation?
The model you choose constitutes your update strategy, how to handle changes to existing rows. In Power Center and Power Mart, you set your update strategy at two different levels:
Within a session. When you configure a session, you can instruct the Informatica Server to either treat all rows in the same way (for example, treat all rows as inserts), or use instructions coded into the session mapping to flag rows for different database operations.
Within a mapping. Within a mapping, you use the Update Strategy transformation to flag rows for insert, delete, update, or reject.
Explain Informatica server Architecture?
Informatica server, load manager/rs,data transfer manager,reader,temp server and writer are the components of Informatica server. First load manager sends a request to the reader if the reader is ready to read the data from source and dump into the temp server and data transfer manager manages the load and it send the request to writer as per first in first out process and writer takes the data from temp server and loads it into the target.
Define Informatica repository?
Informatica Repository: The Informatica repository is at the center of the Informatica suite. You create a set of meta data tables within the repository database that the Informatica application and tools access. The Informatica client and server access the repository to save and retrieve meta data.
What are the difference between joiner transformation and source qualifier transformation?
Joiner Transformation can be used to join tables from heterogeneous (different sources), but we still need a common key from both tables. If we join two tables without a common key we will end up in a Cartesian Join. Joiner can be used to join tables from difference source systems where as Source qualifier can be used to join tables in the same database. We definitely need a common key to join two tables no mater they are in same database or difference databases.
How can you improve session performance in aggregator transformation?
One way is supplying the sorted input to aggregator transformation. In situations where sorted input cannot be supplied, we need to configure data cache and index cache at session/transformation level to allocate more space to support aggregation.
What is the difference between connected and unconnected stored procedures ?
Unconnected: The unconnected Stored Procedure transformation is not connected directly to the flow of the mapping. It either runs before or after the session, or is called by an expression in another transformation in the mapping.
Connected: The flow of data through a mapping in connected mode also passes through the Stored Procedure transformation. All data entering the transformation through the input ports affects the stored procedure. You should use a connected Stored Procedure transformation when you need data from an input port sent as an input parameter to the stored procedure, or the results of a stored procedure sent as an output parameter to another transformation.
Is sorter an active or passive transformation? What happens if we uncheck the distinct option in sorter? Will it be under active or passive transformation?
Sorter is an active transformation. if you don't check the distinct option it is considered as a passive transformation. Because this distinct option eliminates the duplicate records from the table.
How can we partition a session in Informatica?
Partitioning option optimizes parallel processing on multiprocessor hardware by providing a thread-based architecture and built-in data partitioning. GUI-based tools reduce the development effort necessary to create data partitions and streamline ongoing troubleshooting and performance tuning tasks, while ensuring data integrity throughout the execution process. As the amount of data within an organization expands and real-time demand for information grows, the Power Center Partitioning option enables hardware and applications to provide outstanding performance and jointly scale to handle large volumes of data and users.
What are active and passive transformations?
Transformations can be active or passive. An active transformation can change the number of rows that pass through it, such as a Filter transformation that removes rows that do not meet the filter condition.
A passive transformation does not change the number of rows that pass through it, such as an Expression transformation that performs a calculation on data and passes all rows through the transformation.
What is tracing level and what are the types of tracing levels?
Tracing level represents the amount of information that Informatica server writes in a log file.
Types of tracing level:
Normal
Verbose
Verbose init
Verbose data
How can you say that union Transformation is Active transformation?
By Definition, Active transformation is the transformation that changes the number of rows that pass through it. In union transformation the number of rows resulting from union can be different from the actual number of rows.
Is a fact table normalized or de-normalized?
A fact table is always DENORMALISED table. It consists of data from dimension table (Primary Key's) and Fact table has foreign keys and measures.
What are the different threads in DTM process?
Master thread: Creates and manages all other threads
Mapping thread: One mapping thread will be creates for each session.Fectchs session and mapping information.
Pre and post session threads: This will be created to perform pre and post session operations.
Reader thread: One thread will be created for each partition of a source. It reads data from source.
Writer thread: It will be created to load data to the target.
Transformation thread: It will be created to transform data.
If we are using Update Strategy Transformation in a mapping how can we know whether insert or update or reject or delete option has been selected during running of sessions in Informatica?
In Designer while creating Update Strategy Transformation uncheck "forward to next transformation". If any rejected rows are there automatically it will be updated to the session log file.
Update or insert files are known by checking the target file or table only.
How to join two tables without using the Joiner Transformation?
It’s possible to join the two or more tables by using source qualifier. But provided the tables should have relationship.
When you drag and drop the tables you will be getting the source qualifier for each table. Delete all the source qualifiers. Add a common source qualifier for all. Right click on the source qualifier you will find EDIT, click on it. Click on the properties tab and then you will find sql query in that you can write your sql.
Which is better among incremental load, Normal Load and Bulk load?
It depends on the requirement. Otherwise Incremental load can be better as it takes only that data which is not available previously on the target.
What is the difference between summary filter and detail filter?
Summary filter can be applied on a group of rows that contain a common value. Whereas detail filters can be applied on each and every red of the data base.
What are the tasks that Load manger process will do?
Manages the session and batch scheduling: When you start the Informatica server the load manager launches and queries the repository for a list of sessions configured to run on the Informatica server. When you configure the session the load manager maintains list of list of sessions and session start times. When you start a session load manger fetches the session information from the repository to perform the validations and verifications prior to starting DTM process.
Locking and reading the session: When the Informatica server starts a session load manager locks the session from the repository. Locking prevents starting the session again and again.
Reading the parameter file: If the session uses a parameter files,load manager reads the parameter file and verifies that the session level parameters are declared in the file
Verifies permission and privileges: When the session starts load manger checks whether or not the user have privileges to run the session.
Creating log files: Load manger creates log file contains the status of session.
What is Router transformation?
Router transformation allows you to use a condition to test data. It is similar to filter transformation. It allows the testing to be done on one or more conditions.
What type of metadata is stored in repository?
Source definitions: Definitions of database objects (tables, views, synonyms) or files that provide source data.
Target definitions: Definitions of database objects or files that contain the target data.
Multi-dimensional metadata: Target definitions that are configured as cubes and dimensions.
Mappings: A set of source and target definitions along with transformations containing business logic that you build into the transformation. These are the instructions that the Informatica Server uses to transform and move data.
Reusable transformations: Transformations that you can use in multiple mappings.
Mapplets: A set of transformations that you can use in multiple mappings.
Sessions and workflows: Sessions and workflows store information about how and when the Informatica Server moves data. A workflow is a set of instructions that describes how and when to run tasks related to extracting, transforming, and loading data. A session is a type of task that you can put in a workflow. Each session corresponds to a single mapping.
How to delete duplicate rows in flat files source?
Use a sorter transformation, in this you will have a "distinct" option make use of it.
Can you use aggregator/active transformation after update strategy transformation?
You can use aggregator after update strategy. The problem will be, once you perform the update strategy, say you had flagged some rows to be deleted and you had performed aggregator transformation for all rows, say you are using SUM function, then the deleted rows will be subtracted from this aggregator transformation.
What is the difference between dimension table and fact table and what are different dimension tables and fact tables?
Fact table contain measurable data, contains primary key
Different types of fact tables:
1. Additive
2. Non additive
3. Semi additive
Dimensions table contain textual description of data.
It contains primary key.
What is meant by lookup cache?
The Informatica server builds a cache in memory when it processes the first row at a data in a cached look up transformation. It allocates memory for the cache based on the amount you configure in the transformation or session properties. The Informatica server stores condition values in the index cache and output values in the data cache.
Can you use the mapping parameters or variables created in one mapping into any other reusable transformation?
Yes. Because reusable transformation is not contained with any maplet or mapping.
What are reusable transformations?
You can design using two methods:
1. using transformation developer
2. Create normal one and promote it to reusable
What is Code Page used for?
Code Page is used to identify characters that might be in different languages. If you are importing Japanese data into mapping, you must select the Japanese code page of source data.
Can you use a session Bulk loading options and during this time can you make a recovery to the session?
If the session is configured to use in bulk mode it will not write recovery information to recovery tables. So Bulk loading will not perform the recovery as required.
What are the differences between connected and unconnected lookup?
Connected lookup:
1) Receives input values directly from the pipe line.
2) you can use a dynamic or static cache.
3) Cache includes all lookup columns used in the mapping.
4) Support user defined default values.
Unconnected lookup:
1) Receives input values from the result of a lkp expression in a another transformation.
2) You can use a static cache.
3) Cache includes all lookup output ports in the lookup condition and the lookup/return port.
4) Does not support user defined default values.
What are the scheduling options to run a session?
A session can be scheduled to run at a given time or intervel, or you can manually run the session.
Different options of scheduling:
Run only on demand: server runs the session only when user starts session explicitly.
Run once: Informatica server runs the session only once at a specified date and time.
Run every: Informatica server runs the session at regular intervals as u configured.
Customized repeat: Informatica server runs the session at the dates and times specified in the repeat dialog box.
What is parameter file?
Parameter file is to define the values for parameters and variables used in a session. A parameter file is a file created by text editor such as word pad or notepad.
You can define the following values in parameter file:
Mapping parameters
mapping variables
session parameters.
What are the session parameters?
Session parameters are like mapping parameters, that represent values you might want to change between sessions such as database connections or source files.
Server manager also allows you to create user defined session parameters. Following are user defined session parameters:
Database connections
Source file names: Use this parameter when you want to change the name or location of session source file between session runs.
Target file name: Use this parameter when you want to change the name or location of session target file between session runs.
Reject file name: Use this parameter when you want to change the name or location of session reject files between session runs.
In a sequential batch can you run the session if previous session fails?
Yes. By setting the option always runs the session.
How can you transform row to a column?
1. We can use normalizer transformation
or
2.Use pivot function in oracle
What are the basic needs to join two sources in a source qualifier?
Basic need to join two sources using source qualifier:
1) Both sources should be in same database
2) The should have at least one column in common with same data types
What are two types of processes that Informatica runs the session?
Load manager Process: Starts the session, creates the DTM process, and sends post-session email when the session completes.
The DTM process: Creates threads to initialize the session, read, write, and transform data, and handle pre- and post-session operations.
What are mapping parameters and variables in which situation we can use it ?
If we need to change certain attributes of a mapping after every time the session is run, it will be very difficult to edit the mapping and then change the attribute. So we use mapping parameters and variables and define the values in a parameter file. Then we could edit the parameter file to change the attribute values. This makes the process simple.
Mapping parameter values remain constant. If we need to change the parameter value then we needs to edit the parameter file.
But value of mapping variables can be changed by using variable function. If we need to increment the attribute value by 1 after every session run then we can use mapping variables.
In a mapping parameter we need to manually edit the attribute value in the parameter file after every session run.
What is the method of loading 5 flat files of having same structure to a single target and which transformations I can use?
Two Methods.
1. Write all files in one directory then use file repository concept (don’t forget to type source file type as indirect in the session).
2. Use union transformation to combine multiple input files into a single target.
In which circumstances that Informatica server creates Reject files?
When it encounters the DD_Reject in update strategy transformation.
Violates database constraint
Field in the rows was truncated or overflown.
What is the default join that source qualifier provides?
Inner equi join.
What is the difference between Stored Procedure (DB level) and Stored proc trans (INFORMATICA level) ? Why should we use SP trans ?
First of all stored procedures (at DB level) are series of SQL statement. And those are stored and compiled at the server side. In the Informatica it is a transformation that uses same stored procedures which are stored in the database. Stored procedures are used to automate time-consuming tasks that are too complicated for standard SQL statements. if you don't want to use the stored procedure then you have to create expression transformation and do all the coding in it.
What are variable ports and list two situations when they can be used?
We have mainly tree ports Import, Output, Variable port. Import represents data is flowing into transformation. Out port is used when data is mapped to next transformation. Variable port is used when we mathematical calculations are required.
This is a scenario in which the source has 2 columns
10 A
10 A
20 C
30 D
40 E
20 C
and there should be 2 targets one to show the duplicate values and another target for distinct rows.
T1 T2
10 A 10 A
20 C 20 C
30 D
which transformation can be used to load data into target?
40 E
Step1: sort the source data based on the unique key.
Expression:
Flag= iif(col1 =prev_col1,'Y','N')
prev_col1 = col1
Router:
1.for duplicate record: condition: falg = 'Y'
2. For distinct Records condition
flag = 'N'
What r the types of lookup caches?
1) Static Cache
2) Dynamic Cache
3) Persistent Cache
4) Reusable Cache
5) Shared Cache
What are the real times problems that generally come up while doing/running mapping/any transformation? Explain with an example?
Here are few real time examples of problems while running informatica mappings:
1) Informatica uses OBDC connections to connect to the databases.The database passwords (production) is changed in a periodic manner and the same is not updated at the Informatica side. Your mappings will fail in this case and you will get database connectivity error.
2) If you are using Update strategy transformation in the mapping, in the session properties
you have to select Treat Source Rows: Data Driven. If we do not select this Informatica
server will ignore updates and it only inserts rows.
3) If we have mappings loading multiple target tables we have to provide the Target Load Plan
in the sequence we want them to get loaded.
4) Error: Snapshot too old is a very common error when using Oracle tables. We get this error
while using too large tables. Ideally we should schedule these loads when server is not very
busy (meaning when no other loads are running).
5) We might get some poor performance issues while reading from large tables. All the source tables should be indexed and updated regularly.
In update strategy target table or flat file which gives more performance? Why?
Pros: Loading, Sorting, Merging operations will be faster as there is no index concept and Data will be in ASCII mode.
Cons: There is no concept of updating existing records in flat file. As there is no indexes, while lookups speed will be lesser.
What is the difference between constraint base load ordering and target load plan ?
Constraint based load ordering
Example:
Table 1---Master
Take 2---Detail
If the data in Table-1 is dependent on the data in Table-2 then Table-2 should be loaded first. In such cases to control the load order of the tables we need some conditional loading which is nothing but constraint based load. In Informatica this feature is implemented by just one check box at the session level.
What is parameter file?
When you start a workflow, you can optionally enter the directory and name of a parameter file. The Informatica Server runs the workflow using the parameters in the file you specify.
For UNIX shell users, enclose the parameter file name in single quotes:
-paramfile '$PMRootDir/myfile.txt'
For Windows command prompt users, the parameter file name cannot have beginning or trailing spaces. If the name includes spaces, enclose the file name in double quotes:
-paramfile ?$PMRootDirmy file.txt?
Note: When you write a pmcmd command that includes a parameter file located on another machine, use the backslash () with the dollar sign ($). This ensures that the machine where the variable is defined expands the server variable.
Pmcmd startworkflow -UV USERNAME -PV PASSWORD -s SALES: 6258 -f east -w wSalesAvg -paramfile '$PMRootDir/myfile.txt'