Android is a stack of software for mobile devices which has Operating System, middleware and some key applications. The application executes within its own process and its own instance of Dalvik Virtual Machine. Many Virtual Machines run efficiently by a DVM device. DVM executes Java language’s byte code which later transforms into .dex format files.
What are the features of Android?
Components can be reused and replaced by the application framework.
Optimized DVM for mobile devices
SQLite enables to store the data in a structured manner.
Supports GSM telephone and Bluetooth, WiFi, 3G and EDGE technologies
The development is a combination of a device emulator, debugging tools, memory profiling and plug-in for Eclipse IDE.
Why to use Android?
Android is useful because:
It is simple and powerful SDK
Licensing, Distribution or Development fee is not required
Easy to Import third party Java library
Supporting platforms are – Linux, Mac Os, Windows
Describe Android Application Architecture.
Android Application Architecture has the following components:
Services – like Network Operation
Intent - To perform inter-communication between activities or services
Resource Externalization - such as strings and graphics
Notification signaling users - light, sound, icon, notification, dialog etc.
Content Providers - They share data between applications
What is the TTL (Time to Live)? Why is it required?
TTL is a value in data packet of Internet Protocol. It communicates to the network router whether or not the packet should be in the network for too long or discarded. Usually, data packets might not be transmitted to their intended destination within a stipulated period of time. The TTL value is set by a system default value which is an 8-bit binary digit field in the header of the packet. The purpose of TTL is, it would specify certain time limit in seconds, for transmitting the packet header. When the time is exhausted, the packet would be discarded. Each router receives the subtracts count, when the packet is discarded, and when it becomes zero, the router detects the discarded packets and sends a message, Internet Control Message Protocol message back to the originating host.
Explain IP datagram, Fragmentation and MTU.
IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has fields like Version, header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag, protocol, Time to live, Identification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload.
MTU:- Maximum Transmission Unit is the size of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. The size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time of connection
Fragmentation is a process of breaking the IP packets into smaller pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled.
Explain about the exceptions of Android.
The following are the exceptions that are supported by Android
InflateException : When an error conditions are occurred, this exception is thrown
Surface.OutOfResourceException: When a surface is not created or resized, this exception is thrown
SurfaceHolder.BadSurfaceTypeException: This exception is thrown from the lockCanvas() method, when invoked on a Surface whose is SURFACE_TYPE_PUSH_BUFFERS
WindowManager.BadTokenException: This exception is thrown at the time of trying to add view an invalid WindowManager.LayoutParamstoken.
What are the differences between a domain and a workgroup?
In a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. On the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other. In a domain, user doesn’t need an account to logon on a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. In a work group user needs to have an account for every computer. In a domain, Computers can be on different local networks. In a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network.
What are the dialog boxes that are supported in android? Explain.
Android supports 4 dialog boxes:
AlertDialog : An alert dialog box supports 0 to 3 buttons and a list of selectable elements, including check boxes and radio buttons. Among the other dialog boxes, the most suggested dialog box is the alert dialog box.
ProgressDialog: This dialog box displays a progress wheel or a progress bar. It is an extension of AlertDialog and supports adding buttons.
DatePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting a date by the user.
TimePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting time by the user.
What is needed to make a multiple choice list with a custom view for each row?
Multiple choice list can be viewed by making the CheckBox android:id value be “@android:id /text1". That is the ID used by Android for the CheckedTextView in simple_list_item_multiple_choice.
How to select more than one option from list in android xml file? Give an example.
Specify android id, layout height and width as depicted in the following example.
Describe a real time scenario where android can be used
Imagine a situation that you are in a country where no one understands the language you speak and you can not read or write. However, you have mobile phone with you.
With a mobile phone with android, the Google translator translates the data of one language into another language by using XMPP to transmit data. You can type the message in English and select the language which is understood by the citizens of the country in order to reach the message to the citizens.
Describe the APK format.
The APK file is compressed the AndroidManifest.xml file, application code (.dex files), resource files, and other files. A project is compiled into a single .apk file.
What is an action?
A description of something that an Intent sender desires.
What is activity?
A single screen in an application, with supporting Java code.
What is intent?
A class (Intent) describes what a caller desires to do. The caller sends this intent to Android's intent resolver, which finds the most suitable activity for the intent.
How is nine-patch image different from a regular bitmap?
It is a resizable bitmap resource that can be used for backgrounds or other images on the device. The NinePatch class permits drawing a bitmap in nine sections. The four corners are unscaled; the four edges are scaled in one axis, and the middle is scaled in both axes.
What languages does Android support for application development?
Android applications are written using the Java programming language.
What is a resource?
A user-supplied XML, bitmap, or other file, injected into the application build process, which can later be loaded from code.
How will you record a phone call in Android? How to get a handle on Audio Stream for a call in Android?
Permissions.PROCESS_OUTGOING_CALLS: Allows an application to monitor, modify, or abort outgoing calls.
What's the difference between file, class and activity in android?
File - It is a block of arbitrary information, or resource for storing information. It can be of any type.
Class - Its a compiled form of .Java file . Android finally used this .class files to produce an executable apk
Activity - An activity is the equivalent of a Frame/Window in GUI toolkits. It is not a file or a file type it is just a class that can be extended in Android for loading UI elements on view.
What is a Sticky Intent?
sendStickyBroadcast() performs a sendBroadcast (Intent) that is "sticky," i.e. the Intent you are sending stays around after the broadcast is complete, so that others can quickly retrieve that data through the return value of registerReceiver (BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter). In all other ways, this behaves the same as sendBroadcast(Intent).
One example of a sticky broadcast sent via the operating system is ACTION_BATTERY_CHANGED. When you call registerReceiver() for that action -- even with a null BroadcastReceiver -- you get the Intent that was last broadcast for that action. Hence, you can use this to find the state of the battery without necessarily registering for all future state changes in the battery.
How do you implement push vs. pull stacks in Android?
Creating an Android Application using the Eclipse Plugin
Using the Android Eclipse plugin is the fastest and easiest way to start creating a new Android application. The plugin automatically generates the correct project structure for your application, and keeps the resources compiled for you automatically.
It is still a good idea to know what is going on though. Take a look at Overview of an Android Application to understand the basics of how an Android application works. It is also recommended that you take a look at the ApiDemos application and the other sample applications in the samples/ folder in the SDK.
Finally, a great way to started with Android development in Eclipse is to follow both the Hello Android and Notepad code tutorials. In particular, the start of the Hello Android tutorial is an excellent introduction to creating a new Android application in Eclipse.
Can I write code for Android using C/C++?
Android only supports applications written using the Java programming language at this time.
What languages does Android support?
Android applications are written using the Java programming language.
Features of Android
Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components
Dalvik virtual machine optimized for mobile devices
Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine
Optimized graphics powered by a custom 2D graphics library; 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES 1.0 specification (hardware acceleration optional)
SQLite for structured data storage
Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
GSM Telephony (hardware dependent)
Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi (hardware dependent)
Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer (hardware dependent)
Rich development environment including a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE
What is Android Runtime?
Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.
Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.
The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.
Find the answers for the following
When to use a service
How to use a broadcast receiver and register it both in the manifest and in code
Stuff about what manifest attributes and tags mean
The types of flags to run an application
How to do data intensive calculations using threads
Passing large objects (that can't be passed via intents and shouldn't be serialized) via a service
Binding to a service and the service lifecycle
How to persist data (both savedInstanceState and more permanent ways)